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112 terms

Bio 245 exam 3

STUDY
PLAY
the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord are contained in the _____nervous system under the ____ division
autonomic, sympathetic
the ____division of the autonomic nervous system has most divergence
sympathetic
axons pass though the____roots to white rami communicants tho the ______chain ganglia
ventral, sympathetic
splachnic nerves______the sympathetic chain ganglia
bypass
the ___ _____is the connecting the spinal cord to the chain ganglia
white rami
the sacrum, which covers the spine from S2-__ contains cranial nerves 3, 7, 9 and __
S4, 10
the ____ nervous system consists of nerve plexuses within wall of digestive tract
enteric
sympathetic axons reach organs through _____nerves and plexuses
spinal
parasympathetic axons reach organs through ____nerves and plexuses
cranial(3,7 & 9)
parts of reflex arcs regulate ____activities transmit pain and pressure sensations form ____ to _____
organ, organs, CNS
_______is released by cholinergic neurons
Acetylcholine
_______ is released by adrenergic neurons
NE
Cholinergic receptors bind to____
acetylcholine
Nicotinic are all receptors on _____ neurons
postganglionic (all skeletal muscles, adrenal glands)
Muscarinicare all receptors on _____________effectors,
parasympathetic (receptors of some sweat glands)
______receptors bind norepinephrine/epinephrine
Adrenergic (alpha or beta)
Parasympathetic reflex via ____ lowers heart rate
vagus nerve
Local reflex does not involve _____
CNS (Produces involuntary, unconscious, stereotypical response to stimulus. E.g., stretch of wall of digestive tract causes contraction of smooth muscle of the wall)
there are ___primary odors, the average person can recognize ____different odors and olfactory neurons are replaced every 30-__days
7, 4000, 60
during odorant binding, after stimulation the gated ion channel is____, the odarant then binds to the ____ororant receptor, then the G protein is _____ and the a, b, and y subunits ____, the a subunit then activates enzyme adenylate cyclase which ____the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP(cAMP) which opens the ion channel, allowing ions to cause _____of the neuron
closed, dissociate, catylizes, depolarization
axons of the olfactory neurons lead to the olfactory___, which projects throught the olfactory tract and cortex which is involved in the consious perception of smell, then to the ___olfactory area which is involved in the visceral and emotional reaction to odors, then to the ______olfactory area which receives input to the axons which carry action potential to modulate activity of the ____
bulb, medial, intermediate, neurons
vallate papillae have taste buds and are the ____ and ___numerus, there are about ___ in a V along the border
largest, most, 10
fungiform papillae are ____-shaped, have taste buds, and are _____on the tongue's surface
mushroom, scattered
Foliate papillae are ____-shaped, have the most sensative taste buds, and are located in folds on the ____parts of the tongue, but decease in number with age
leaf, side
filiform papillae are ____-shaped, are ____numerous and provide a ____surface, they contain no taste buds
filiment, most, rough
taste buds are replaced every ___days
10
salty and sour tastes use chemical_______for sensation of taste while sweet, bitter and umami use chemical________ to pass through the membrane
diffusion, active transport
salty taste uses ___ions and are the most sensative receptor on the ___ of the tongue
metal, tip
sour taste uses ____ions and are the most sensative receptors on the ____of the tongue
hydrogen, sides
sweet taste senses _____, located o the tip of the tongue
carbohydrates
bitter taste is the most sensative on the ____part of the tongue, senses alkaloids
posterior
umami taste(glutamate) have scattered sensitivity and sense ____
MSG
the nauronal pathways for taste: synapse with taste receptors->pass though cranial nerves 7, 9, and ___, and through the ___of each nerve->the axons enter at the ______and synapse at the tractus solitarius which synapse into the ____, then the axons from the____(same)terminate taste in the taste area of the cortex
10, brainstem, talamus, thalamus
over__% of all sensory neurons are in the eye, which Requires also the most _____
50, learning
the Eyelids & conjunctiva,
Eyelashes & eyebrows,
Lacrimal apparatus and
Extrinsic eye muscles are all_____structures of the eye
accessory
Three layers or tunics:
______: sclera and cornea
_____: choroid, ciliary body, iris
_____: retina
Fibrous, Vascular, Nervous
chambers of the eye:
Interior chambers: anterior to lens; filled with ____ humor
Anterior chamber: between _____ and iris
Posterior chamber: between iris and____.
Posterior Vitreous chamber: posterior to lens. Filled with jelly-like ______ humor. Helps maintain intraocular ______, holds lens and retina in place, refracts light.
aqueous, cornea, lens, vitreous, pressure
the Sclera is the white outer layer of the eye
it Maintains ____
Protects internal structures
Provides muscle attachment point, Continuous with cornea, Dense collagenous _____ tissue with elastic fibers, Collagen fibers are large and opaque
shape, connective
the _____ is a connective tissue matrix made of Collagen, elastic fibers and proteoglycans
Allows light to enter eye
Bends and refracts light.
Cornea
The Vascular tunic of the eye it the _____ layer which Contains most of the blood vessels of the eye,
the Iris which Controls ____entering the pupil, and the
Sphincter pupillae which parasympathetically ____the pupil, and the
Dilator pupillae which sympathetically ___the pupil.
the Ciliary body produces _____ _____
Ciliary muscles: control lens ____;
Ciliary processes attached to suspensory ligaments of lens
Choroid: associated with . Very thin, pigmented.
middle, light, constricts, dilates, aqueous humor, shape
the nervous tunic of the eye has Two layers, the
Pigmented retina layer which contains
Pigmented simple _____epithelium which
Reduces light ____. the
Sensory/neural retina layer contains about 120 million ____ and 7 million____
cuboidal, scattering, rods, cones
the Lens _____ light on macula lutea and fovea centralis. the
Macula lutea (containing highest concentration of cones for color) is a
small yellow spot containing the Fovea centralis which is responsible for Visual ____
the ____ disc is commonly known as the blind spot
focuses, acuity, Optic
Rods of the eye use Bipolar photoreceptor cells for
black and white vision.
Found over most of ____
More sensitive to light than cones
retina
in the rhodopsin cycle when light is received, the Na+channel _____, the G protein is activated, the cis-retinol is _____, and the cGMP from the sodium channel is activated and produces ___-> the trans-retinol _____ the membrane, cGMP is inactivated-> ATP is released causing the Na+ channel to reopen
closes, straightened, GMP, enters
in the _____ the cGMP/Na+ channel opens, the Na+ channel opens the Ca++ channel, then neurotransmitter (inhibitor) is released which ______bipolar cells
Dark, inactivates
when in the ____, Opsin activates a G protein which activates another protein cascade, then cGMP is ____ from Na+ channel and the Na+ and Ca++ channels both ____; neurotransmitter is not released but bipolar cells are activated
Light, removed, close
the Na+ channel want to hyperpolarize/____due to light
close
Sensory Pathway of the eyes:
rod/cone cells>bipolar neuron>ganglion cells>axons>optic _____>optic______ >optic tract>_____> occiptial lobe
nerve, chiasma, thalamus
Binocular vision—each eye sends impulses to both sides of the brain—some impulses cross at the optic ______, others do not
chiasma
functions and components of the ear:
___ear: hearing. Air-filled space containing auditory ossicles
____ ear: ends at the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Includes auricle and external auditory meatus
_____ ear: hearing and balance. Interconnecting ____-filled tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone
Middle, External, Inner, fluid
____window->_____, scala vestibuli of the cochlea->2nd cochlear chamber->____window>scala vestibuli and tympani
oval, vestibule, round,
Near oval window basilar membrane responds to ____-frequency vibrations, Near helicotrema(inner) responds to ___-frequency vibrations
high, low
Basilar region of hair cells covered by synaptic terminals of _____neurons
sensory
the stereocilia(hair cells) in the ____ ear ear are responsible for hearing, whereas the _____hair cells regulate tension on basilar membrane
inner, outer
the hair cells in the ear sense sound by the following process: the tip link is relaxed & the K+ channel is ____->sound causes the stereocilia to ____ toward the taller hair=the tip link stretches->the force created by the stretching of the tip link opens the K+ gate channel-> K+ ____the cell
closed, bend, enters
_____ produce sound waves
Vibrations
the function of wave ________ is volume or loudness, the function of wave______is pitch, tumbre is the resonance of _____or overtones of sound
amplitude, frequency, quality
the further into the cochlea, the _____amount of Hz/_____frequency received (from 600-20,000)
higher, high
the pathway for hearing: sensory axons go to the brainstem->____->auditory cortex of the brain->____ear-> middle ear
thalamus, inner
The _____ labyrinth contains the
semicircular canals, it
Evaluates movement of the head in three dimensional space(3d)
Kinetic
The _____ labyrinth:
Evaluates position of head relative to gravity
and Detects linear acceleration (linear)
Static
vestibular neurons, cross innervations with eye muscles, and reflexes help with ______
balance
Slight loss in ability to detect odors
Decreased sense of taste
eyes lose some focusing ability,
glaucoma,damage to optic nerve, is more prevelant, and
Decline in visual acuity and color perception are all due to_____
aging
the nervous and endocrine systems work together to coordinate______ of all body systems
functions
the exocrine system contains ___whereas the endocrine does not
ducts
the more receptors, the ___the cell responds
faster
the 2 types of hormones are: ______ - circulate in blood throughout body via blood supply
Local hormones - act locally
_______ - act on neighboring cells
Autocrine - act on the same cell that secreted them
Circulating, Paracrine
Lipid-soluble hormones use use _____ proteins
(ex: Steroid, Thyroid)
Water-soluble hormones circulate in "free" form Amine via ______
(ex:Peptide/ protein)
transport, diffusion
Response depends on both hormone and target cell..
____-soluble hormones bind to receptors inside target cells
____-soluble hormones bind to receptors on the plasma membrane.
Lipid, Water
Responsiveness of target cell depends on the
Hormone's ___________ and the Abundance of target cell_______
Influence exerted by other hormones
concentration, receptors
lipid soluble hormone cycle:
hormone diffuses into the cell ->hormone receptor is activated which alters ____expression->mRNA fromed directs protein synthesis on ______->new _____alter cell's activity
gene, proteins, ribosomes
water-soluble hormone transport: the hormone binds to its receptor and activates the ______ which activates adenylate cyclase->adenylate cyclase converts ____ to cAMP->cAMP activates protein kinases->activated protein kinases phosphorylate cellular _____->millions of phosphorylated ____cause reactions which produce a physiological response
G protein, ATP, proteins, proteins
Most hormones controlled by _______ feedback systems
Most hormones are not secreted at a _____ rate, but their secretion is regulated by three different methods
negative, constant
__ is used instead of Na+ to activate hormones
Ca"
humoral stimuli regulates ___levels which use PTH in the parathyroid glands to create osteoclasts when the concentration of ___ in the blood is low
Ca++
Endocrine Neural stimuli system: action potential causes hormone to be released into the ___->the action potential in the neuron releases an ________response->the hormone stops being released
blood(within body), inhibitory
endocrine hormone regulation: hypothalamus releases hormones to the ____ gland which releases other hormones which go to the ____ endocrine cell which secretes its hormone into the blood-> the hormone travels to its target and creates a _____-> when enough is released the endocrine cell inhibits the process via _____feedback, whereas ____feedback would continue the release of hormone
pituitary, target, response, negative, positive
list the following patterns of hormone secretion from low and steady to periodic and high: acute, episodic, chronic
chronic, acute(insulin), episodic(estrogen)
hormone up-regulation of the target cell_______the chance/frequency of hormones binding to the receptors
increases
in membrane-bound receptors, the 3 different results of ligand/hormone binding are: 1-alteration of membrane____, 2-activation of _____(cascade), and 3-receptors are ______ to intracellular enzymes via intracellular mediators
permiability, G proteins, linked
slides 82, 84, 85, already done?
...
DAG and IP3 proteins cause increase of Ca++ in the cytoplasm bioavailable for smooth muscles to _____
contract
the activated hormone receptor ______intracellular proteins
phosphorilates
the hormonal cascade effect begins with the 1 receptor and hormone, ->activates 3 G proteins->activates 10 ______ cyclase enzymes->activates 15 _____->activates 34 enzyme _______
adenylate, cAMP, kinases
the _____(or colloid) consists of 91% water, proteins in the blood are albumins(pressure), globulins and fibrinogen(clots), as well as ions, nutrients, waste products, gases and _____ substances like hormones and enzymes
plasma, regulatory
55% of the blood is ____ while 45% makes up the______
plasma, formed elements,
the plasma consists of 91% ____, 2% buffy coat(WBC and platelets[neut/lymph/mono/eo/baso]), and 7% _____(mostly albumin, then globulins and fibrinogen)
water, proteins
neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are multi-lobed and contain large ____
granules
thrombocytes are more commonly known as ______
platelets (cell clotting)
Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis is the Process of ______________ production
blood cell
Stem cells: All formed elements derived from single population
Proerythroblasts: Develop into _____
Myeloblasts: Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
Lymphoblasts: Develop into lymphocytes
Monoblasts: Develop into monocytes
Megakaryoblasts: Develop into _____
RBC, platelets
RBC are more abundant in males, it contains ___hemoglobin and ___lipids, ATP and carbonic anhydrase
1/3, 2/3
Oxygen from lungs to tissues:
98.5% attached to ______
1.5% dissolved in ______

Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs.
7% dissolved in ______
23% in combination with ________
70% transported as bicarbonate ions
hemoglobin, plasma, plasma, hemoglobin
Types of hemoglobin
Embryonic/fetal:
Have a high affinity for _____

Adult
Oxyhemoglobin:
transporting _____

Deoxyhemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin: transporting carbon _____
oxygen, oxygen, dioxide
????HELP with hemoglobin breakdown 102
...
neutrophils are WBC used for phagocytosis and _____ and eosiniphils are used for to ______ histamine
secretion, combat
Basophils are WBC that produce histamine, lymphocytes produce _____, and monocytes act as macrophages and phagocytic cells
antubodies
eosinophils and basophils are responsible for _____
inflimation
hemostasis prevents ___loss
blood
the stages of blood coagulation involve the activation of thrombbinase, conversion of thrombonin->thombin, conversion of fibrinogen->fibrin. factors include plasma protein, and amount of platelets
108
the extrinsic blood clotting pathway: Ca2+ activates factor X and
Prothrombinase is formed
Stage 2
prothrombinase converts prothrombin into ______
Stage 3
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to ____
thrombin, fibrin
the intrinsic clood clotting pathway: Begins with chemicals that are part of the ____...
Stage 1
In damaged blood vessels, factor XII comes in contact with exposed _____, factor cascade, platelet phospholipids and Ca2+ to activates factor X
Prothrombinase is formed
Stages 2 and 3 progress to ____ formation
blood, collagen, clot
control of clot formation: Anticoagulants prevent coagulation factors from initiating clot formation.
Coagulation occurs when coagulation factor concentration _____ a given threshold. At site of injury, threshold is exceeded.
Anticoagulants like:
Antithrombin(produced by liver)
Heparin: (produced by basophils). Increases antithrombin which causes vasodilation and inhibits release of coagulating factors from [opening up blood flow/dialating and preventing cascade from going out]
exceeds, platelets
plasmin breaks up the ___molecules in a clot
fibrin
the 2 groups of blood _____ are A,B,O and Rh
clotting
Rh _____: Have these antigens present on surface of _____
Rh ______: Do not have these antigens present
positive, RBCs, negative
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) may occur when Rh positive fetus is being birthed by a Rh _____ mother.
negative
supertior/inferior vena cava-)R atrium->tricuspid valve->R. ventricle->pulminary semilunar valve->pulminary trunk->pulminary arteries->lungs=02->pulminary veins->L atrium->bicuspid valve->L ventricle->aortic semilunar valve->aorta-->>coronary areteries(heart tissues and back through R. atrium) or the body
...
AP start at SA node(pacemaker)->AV node accross atrium->AP->fibers in AV node to the interventricular septum->apex of ventricles->AP carried by perkinje fibers from bundle branches to the ventricle walls and papillary muscles
...
absolute refratory period=cardiac muscle is cant contract again, relative RP is when the cell can still contract with enough AP
...
P wave=deplarizes the atria and signals it to contract,
QRS complex is when the vernticles depolarize and contract,
T-wave is when the ventricles repolarize and relax
...
systole=contract (S-C)
diastole=relax (D-R)
...