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the lateral gray horns of the spinal cord are contained in the _____nervous system under the ____ division

autonomic, sympathetic

the ____division of the autonomic nervous system has most divergence


axons pass though the____roots to white rami communicants tho the ______chain ganglia

ventral, sympathetic

splachnic nerves______the sympathetic chain ganglia


the ___ _____is the connecting the spinal cord to the chain ganglia

white rami

the sacrum, which covers the spine from S2-__ contains cranial nerves 3, 7, 9 and __

S4, 10

the ____ nervous system consists of nerve plexuses within wall of digestive tract


sympathetic axons reach organs through _____nerves and plexuses


parasympathetic axons reach organs through ____nerves and plexuses

cranial(3,7 & 9)

parts of reflex arcs regulate ____activities transmit pain and pressure sensations form ____ to _____

organ, organs, CNS

_______is released by cholinergic neurons


_______ is released by adrenergic neurons


Cholinergic receptors bind to____


Nicotinic are all receptors on _____ neurons

postganglionic (all skeletal muscles, adrenal glands)

Muscarinicare all receptors on _____________effectors,

parasympathetic (receptors of some sweat glands)

______receptors bind norepinephrine/epinephrine

Adrenergic (alpha or beta)

Parasympathetic reflex via ____ lowers heart rate

vagus nerve

Local reflex does not involve _____

CNS (Produces involuntary, unconscious, stereotypical response to stimulus. E.g., stretch of wall of digestive tract causes contraction of smooth muscle of the wall)

there are ___primary odors, the average person can recognize ____different odors and olfactory neurons are replaced every 30-__days

7, 4000, 60

during odorant binding, after stimulation the gated ion channel is____, the odarant then binds to the ____ororant receptor, then the G protein is _____ and the a, b, and y subunits ____, the a subunit then activates enzyme adenylate cyclase which ____the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP(cAMP) which opens the ion channel, allowing ions to cause _____of the neuron

closed, dissociate, catylizes, depolarization

axons of the olfactory neurons lead to the olfactory___, which projects throught the olfactory tract and cortex which is involved in the consious perception of smell, then to the ___olfactory area which is involved in the visceral and emotional reaction to odors, then to the ______olfactory area which receives input to the axons which carry action potential to modulate activity of the ____

bulb, medial, intermediate, neurons

vallate papillae have taste buds and are the ____ and ___numerus, there are about ___ in a V along the border

largest, most, 10

fungiform papillae are ____-shaped, have taste buds, and are _____on the tongue's surface

mushroom, scattered

Foliate papillae are ____-shaped, have the most sensative taste buds, and are located in folds on the ____parts of the tongue, but decease in number with age

leaf, side

filiform papillae are ____-shaped, are ____numerous and provide a ____surface, they contain no taste buds

filiment, most, rough

taste buds are replaced every ___days


salty and sour tastes use chemical_______for sensation of taste while sweet, bitter and umami use chemical________ to pass through the membrane

diffusion, active transport

salty taste uses ___ions and are the most sensative receptor on the ___ of the tongue

metal, tip

sour taste uses ____ions and are the most sensative receptors on the ____of the tongue

hydrogen, sides

sweet taste senses _____, located o the tip of the tongue


bitter taste is the most sensative on the ____part of the tongue, senses alkaloids


umami taste(glutamate) have scattered sensitivity and sense ____


the nauronal pathways for taste: synapse with taste receptors->pass though cranial nerves 7, 9, and ___, and through the ___of each nerve->the axons enter at the ______and synapse at the tractus solitarius which synapse into the ____, then the axons from the____(same)terminate taste in the taste area of the cortex

10, brainstem, talamus, thalamus

over__% of all sensory neurons are in the eye, which Requires also the most _____

50, learning

the Eyelids & conjunctiva,
Eyelashes & eyebrows,
Lacrimal apparatus and
Extrinsic eye muscles are all_____structures of the eye


Three layers or tunics:
______: sclera and cornea
_____: choroid, ciliary body, iris
_____: retina

Fibrous, Vascular, Nervous

chambers of the eye:
Interior chambers: anterior to lens; filled with ____ humor
Anterior chamber: between _____ and iris
Posterior chamber: between iris and____.
Posterior Vitreous chamber: posterior to lens. Filled with jelly-like ______ humor. Helps maintain intraocular ______, holds lens and retina in place, refracts light.

aqueous, cornea, lens, vitreous, pressure

the Sclera is the white outer layer of the eye
it Maintains ____
Protects internal structures
Provides muscle attachment point, Continuous with cornea, Dense collagenous _____ tissue with elastic fibers, Collagen fibers are large and opaque

shape, connective

the _____ is a connective tissue matrix made of Collagen, elastic fibers and proteoglycans
Allows light to enter eye
Bends and refracts light.


The Vascular tunic of the eye it the _____ layer which Contains most of the blood vessels of the eye,
the Iris which Controls ____entering the pupil, and the
Sphincter pupillae which parasympathetically ____the pupil, and the
Dilator pupillae which sympathetically ___the pupil.
the Ciliary body produces _____ _____
Ciliary muscles: control lens ____;
Ciliary processes attached to suspensory ligaments of lens
Choroid: associated with . Very thin, pigmented.

middle, light, constricts, dilates, aqueous humor, shape

the nervous tunic of the eye has Two layers, the
Pigmented retina layer which contains
Pigmented simple _____epithelium which
Reduces light ____. the
Sensory/neural retina layer contains about 120 million ____ and 7 million____

cuboidal, scattering, rods, cones

the Lens _____ light on macula lutea and fovea centralis. the
Macula lutea (containing highest concentration of cones for color) is a
small yellow spot containing the Fovea centralis which is responsible for Visual ____
the ____ disc is commonly known as the blind spot

focuses, acuity, Optic

Rods of the eye use Bipolar photoreceptor cells for
black and white vision.
Found over most of ____
More sensitive to light than cones


in the rhodopsin cycle when light is received, the Na+channel _____, the G protein is activated, the cis-retinol is _____, and the cGMP from the sodium channel is activated and produces ___-> the trans-retinol _____ the membrane, cGMP is inactivated-> ATP is released causing the Na+ channel to reopen

closes, straightened, GMP, enters

in the _____ the cGMP/Na+ channel opens, the Na+ channel opens the Ca++ channel, then neurotransmitter (inhibitor) is released which ______bipolar cells

Dark, inactivates

when in the ____, Opsin activates a G protein which activates another protein cascade, then cGMP is ____ from Na+ channel and the Na+ and Ca++ channels both ____; neurotransmitter is not released but bipolar cells are activated

Light, removed, close

the Na+ channel want to hyperpolarize/____due to light


Sensory Pathway of the eyes:
rod/cone cells>bipolar neuron>ganglion cells>axons>optic _____>optic______ >optic tract>_____> occiptial lobe

nerve, chiasma, thalamus

Binocular vision—each eye sends impulses to both sides of the brain—some impulses cross at the optic ______, others do not


functions and components of the ear:
___ear: hearing. Air-filled space containing auditory ossicles
____ ear: ends at the eardrum (tympanic membrane). Includes auricle and external auditory meatus
_____ ear: hearing and balance. Interconnecting ____-filled tunnels and chambers within the temporal bone

Middle, External, Inner, fluid

____window->_____, scala vestibuli of the cochlea->2nd cochlear chamber->____window>scala vestibuli and tympani

oval, vestibule, round,

Near oval window basilar membrane responds to ____-frequency vibrations, Near helicotrema(inner) responds to ___-frequency vibrations

high, low

Basilar region of hair cells covered by synaptic terminals of _____neurons


the stereocilia(hair cells) in the ____ ear ear are responsible for hearing, whereas the _____hair cells regulate tension on basilar membrane

inner, outer

the hair cells in the ear sense sound by the following process: the tip link is relaxed & the K+ channel is ____->sound causes the stereocilia to ____ toward the taller hair=the tip link stretches->the force created by the stretching of the tip link opens the K+ gate channel-> K+ ____the cell

closed, bend, enters

_____ produce sound waves


the function of wave ________ is volume or loudness, the function of wave______is pitch, tumbre is the resonance of _____or overtones of sound

amplitude, frequency, quality

the further into the cochlea, the _____amount of Hz/_____frequency received (from 600-20,000)

higher, high

the pathway for hearing: sensory axons go to the brainstem->____->auditory cortex of the brain->____ear-> middle ear

thalamus, inner

The _____ labyrinth contains the
semicircular canals, it
Evaluates movement of the head in three dimensional space(3d)


The _____ labyrinth:
Evaluates position of head relative to gravity
and Detects linear acceleration (linear)


vestibular neurons, cross innervations with eye muscles, and reflexes help with ______


Slight loss in ability to detect odors
Decreased sense of taste
eyes lose some focusing ability,
glaucoma,damage to optic nerve, is more prevelant, and
Decline in visual acuity and color perception are all due to_____


the nervous and endocrine systems work together to coordinate______ of all body systems


the exocrine system contains ___whereas the endocrine does not


the more receptors, the ___the cell responds


the 2 types of hormones are: ______ - circulate in blood throughout body via blood supply
Local hormones - act locally
_______ - act on neighboring cells
Autocrine - act on the same cell that secreted them

Circulating, Paracrine

Lipid-soluble hormones use use _____ proteins
(ex: Steroid, Thyroid)
Water-soluble hormones circulate in "free" form Amine via ______
(ex:Peptide/ protein)

transport, diffusion

Response depends on both hormone and target cell..
____-soluble hormones bind to receptors inside target cells
____-soluble hormones bind to receptors on the plasma membrane.

Lipid, Water

Responsiveness of target cell depends on the
Hormone's ___________ and the Abundance of target cell_______
Influence exerted by other hormones

concentration, receptors

lipid soluble hormone cycle:
hormone diffuses into the cell ->hormone receptor is activated which alters ____expression->mRNA fromed directs protein synthesis on ______->new _____alter cell's activity

gene, proteins, ribosomes

water-soluble hormone transport: the hormone binds to its receptor and activates the ______ which activates adenylate cyclase->adenylate cyclase converts ____ to cAMP->cAMP activates protein kinases->activated protein kinases phosphorylate cellular _____->millions of phosphorylated ____cause reactions which produce a physiological response

G protein, ATP, proteins, proteins

Most hormones controlled by _______ feedback systems
Most hormones are not secreted at a _____ rate, but their secretion is regulated by three different methods

negative, constant

__ is used instead of Na+ to activate hormones


humoral stimuli regulates ___levels which use PTH in the parathyroid glands to create osteoclasts when the concentration of ___ in the blood is low


Endocrine Neural stimuli system: action potential causes hormone to be released into the ___->the action potential in the neuron releases an ________response->the hormone stops being released

blood(within body), inhibitory

endocrine hormone regulation: hypothalamus releases hormones to the ____ gland which releases other hormones which go to the ____ endocrine cell which secretes its hormone into the blood-> the hormone travels to its target and creates a _____-> when enough is released the endocrine cell inhibits the process via _____feedback, whereas ____feedback would continue the release of hormone

pituitary, target, response, negative, positive

list the following patterns of hormone secretion from low and steady to periodic and high: acute, episodic, chronic

chronic, acute(insulin), episodic(estrogen)

hormone up-regulation of the target cell_______the chance/frequency of hormones binding to the receptors


in membrane-bound receptors, the 3 different results of ligand/hormone binding are: 1-alteration of membrane____, 2-activation of _____(cascade), and 3-receptors are ______ to intracellular enzymes via intracellular mediators

permiability, G proteins, linked

slides 82, 84, 85, already done?


DAG and IP3 proteins cause increase of Ca++ in the cytoplasm bioavailable for smooth muscles to _____


the activated hormone receptor ______intracellular proteins


the hormonal cascade effect begins with the 1 receptor and hormone, ->activates 3 G proteins->activates 10 ______ cyclase enzymes->activates 15 _____->activates 34 enzyme _______

adenylate, cAMP, kinases

the _____(or colloid) consists of 91% water, proteins in the blood are albumins(pressure), globulins and fibrinogen(clots), as well as ions, nutrients, waste products, gases and _____ substances like hormones and enzymes

plasma, regulatory

55% of the blood is ____ while 45% makes up the______

plasma, formed elements,

the plasma consists of 91% ____, 2% buffy coat(WBC and platelets[neut/lymph/mono/eo/baso]), and 7% _____(mostly albumin, then globulins and fibrinogen)

water, proteins

neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils are multi-lobed and contain large ____


thrombocytes are more commonly known as ______

platelets (cell clotting)

Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis is the Process of ______________ production

blood cell

Stem cells: All formed elements derived from single population
Proerythroblasts: Develop into _____
Myeloblasts: Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils
Lymphoblasts: Develop into lymphocytes
Monoblasts: Develop into monocytes
Megakaryoblasts: Develop into _____

RBC, platelets

RBC are more abundant in males, it contains ___hemoglobin and ___lipids, ATP and carbonic anhydrase

1/3, 2/3

Oxygen from lungs to tissues:
98.5% attached to ______
1.5% dissolved in ______

Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs.
7% dissolved in ______
23% in combination with ________
70% transported as bicarbonate ions

hemoglobin, plasma, plasma, hemoglobin

Types of hemoglobin
Have a high affinity for _____

transporting _____

Carbaminohemoglobin: transporting carbon _____

oxygen, oxygen, dioxide

????HELP with hemoglobin breakdown 102


neutrophils are WBC used for phagocytosis and _____ and eosiniphils are used for to ______ histamine

secretion, combat

Basophils are WBC that produce histamine, lymphocytes produce _____, and monocytes act as macrophages and phagocytic cells


eosinophils and basophils are responsible for _____


hemostasis prevents ___loss


the stages of blood coagulation involve the activation of thrombbinase, conversion of thrombonin->thombin, conversion of fibrinogen->fibrin. factors include plasma protein, and amount of platelets


the extrinsic blood clotting pathway: Ca2+ activates factor X and
Prothrombinase is formed
Stage 2
prothrombinase converts prothrombin into ______
Stage 3
Thrombin converts fibrinogen to ____

thrombin, fibrin

the intrinsic clood clotting pathway: Begins with chemicals that are part of the ____...
Stage 1
In damaged blood vessels, factor XII comes in contact with exposed _____, factor cascade, platelet phospholipids and Ca2+ to activates factor X
Prothrombinase is formed
Stages 2 and 3 progress to ____ formation

blood, collagen, clot

control of clot formation: Anticoagulants prevent coagulation factors from initiating clot formation.
Coagulation occurs when coagulation factor concentration _____ a given threshold. At site of injury, threshold is exceeded.
Anticoagulants like:
Antithrombin(produced by liver)
Heparin: (produced by basophils). Increases antithrombin which causes vasodilation and inhibits release of coagulating factors from [opening up blood flow/dialating and preventing cascade from going out]

exceeds, platelets

plasmin breaks up the ___molecules in a clot


the 2 groups of blood _____ are A,B,O and Rh


Rh _____: Have these antigens present on surface of _____
Rh ______: Do not have these antigens present

positive, RBCs, negative

Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) may occur when Rh positive fetus is being birthed by a Rh _____ mother.


supertior/inferior vena cava-)R atrium->tricuspid valve->R. ventricle->pulminary semilunar valve->pulminary trunk->pulminary arteries->lungs=02->pulminary veins->L atrium->bicuspid valve->L ventricle->aortic semilunar valve->aorta-->>coronary areteries(heart tissues and back through R. atrium) or the body


AP start at SA node(pacemaker)->AV node accross atrium->AP->fibers in AV node to the interventricular septum->apex of ventricles->AP carried by perkinje fibers from bundle branches to the ventricle walls and papillary muscles


absolute refratory period=cardiac muscle is cant contract again, relative RP is when the cell can still contract with enough AP


P wave=deplarizes the atria and signals it to contract,
QRS complex is when the vernticles depolarize and contract,
T-wave is when the ventricles repolarize and relax


systole=contract (S-C)
diastole=relax (D-R)


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