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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
APUSH Chapter 7 & 8 Combined Quizlet
Terms in this set (65)
A philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. The government is based on consent of the governed
who willingly put the common good above individual desires
Eighteenth-century British political commentators who agitated against political corruption and emphasized the threat to liberty posed by arbitrary power. Their writings shaped American political thought and made colonists especially alert to encroachments on their rights.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
First law passed by the British Parliament concerning taxes on the American population. Heavily taxed molasses and sugar imported by the colonies in 1764. Bitterly protested by the colonies
Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies. Came in 1765 after the Sugar Act
Passed by Parliament in 1765 and required the use of stamps on bills of sale, about fifty trade items, as well as certain commercial & legal documents. The BR saw this as fair as it was simply a way for the Americans to pay their fair share of the costs of their own defense
British courts heard by judges and no jury, where "innocence until proven guilty" was not assumed. They were used primarily to try people who (supposedly) committed smuggling violations against the Sugar & Stamp Acts.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Agreements not to import goods from Great Britain. They were designed to put pressure on the British economy and force the repeal of unpopular parliamentary acts.
Sons of Liberty
A society of passionate and sometimes violent men formed to oppose British policies such as the Stamp Act and to enforce the Nonimportation Agreements.
Daughters of Liberty
This organization of American women supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. This was done to protest British tax laws and to help America become self-sufficient
Act passed in 1766 immediately after the repeal of the stamp act; stated that Parliament had authority over the the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation "in all cases whatsoever."
A series of laws and regulations passed by Parliament in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea
A clash in 1770 when a crowd of 60 townspeople who threw snowballs with rocks in them at a squad of redcoats over the death of an eleven year old boy during a protest who was shot by the redcoats. The British opened fire and killed or wounded 11 citizens. This event was sensationalized to support the American cause
Committees of Correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams to spread the spirit of resistance through the colonies. Eventually formed standing committees in colonies to help govern and exchange ideas and information with other colonies. Eventually evolved directly into the first American congresses.
Boston Tea Party
A protest in December of 1773 where roughly a hundred Bostonian, loosely disguised as Indians, boarded docked ships and smashed open 342 chests of tea and dumped them into the sea. Had massive ramifications in the path to the American Revolution
A series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party. Removed many of the chartered rights of Massachusetts, restrictions were placed on town meetings, the Boston Port Act closed the harbor until damages were paid for, and there was a new Quartering Act.
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists misinterpreted this and took it as a further punishment for the Boston Tea Party
First Continental Congress
September 1774, delegates from every colony (but Georgia) sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts
The most significant reaction of the First Continental Congress: A boycott that called for a
boycott of British gods
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The first battles of the American Revolution. A detachment of British troops was sent to Lexington to seize stores of gunpowder and get the "rebel" leaders. There fighting began between the redcoats and the colonial "minutemen" where eight Americans were wounded and several more. The redcoats pushed onto Concord where they were forced to retreat.
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778 and where a quarter of Washington's troops died from disease, harsh conditions, and malnutrition until Steuben came and helped to train troops
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence. Amassed his fortune by smuggling
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763. He strictly enforced the Navigation Laws, passed the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Quartering Act, and the Admiralty Courts.
Charles ("Champagne Charley") Townshend
Gifted public speaker who seized control of British ministry and passed Townshend Acts.
A free black man who was the first person killed in the Revolution at the Boston Massacre. He was described as a "mulatto" and the leader of the American mob
English monarch at the time of the revolution. He was the main opposition for the colonies due to his stubborn attitude and unwillingness to hear out colonial requests/grievances. (Emphasis on
Prime Minister of England from 1770 to 1782. Although he repealed the Townshend Acts, he generally went along with King George III's repressive policies towards the colonies even though he personally considered them wrong. (
Just know he is King George III's Prime Minister
American Revolutionary leader and patriot, Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence. Cousin of John Adams, organized Committees of Correspondence.
British governor of Massachusetts whose stubborn policies helped provoke the Boston Tea Party. Even though he was an American, he was against the cause for liberty
Marquis de Lafayette
Super rich cocky French soldier who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army.
Baron von Steuben
A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British. He arrived during the Army's time in Valley Forge and helped turn the war around
Royal governor of Virginia who issued a proclamation promising freedom for any enslaved black in Virginia who joined the British army
Second Continental Congress
Convened once again in Philadelphia with all 13 colonies represented. The Congress wrote appeals to the King and Parliament which were all rejected
Battle of Bunker Hill
(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
German mercenary soldiers hired by George III to smash Colonial rebellion, proved good in mechanical sense but they were more concerned about money than duty.
One of the most influential pamphlets ever written. Authored by Thomas Paine and inspired American loyalty in the Revolutionary Cause. Declared that the only lawful states were ones that got power from the people they are governed by
Declaration of Independence
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights written by Thomas Jefferson adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence
American colonists who supported and fought for independence from Great Britain during the Revolutionary War
Battle of Long Island
A disastrous battle for the Americans in 1776 in New York where more than 1,400 Americans were killed, wounded, or captured as a result of panic in the recruits.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the Hessians who were drunk and asleep from Christmas celebrations. As a result they were not able to back up the British in coming battles.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Sample treaty drafted by the Continental Congress as a guide for American diplomats. Reflected the Americans' desire to foster commercial partnerships rather than political or military entanglements.
Loose alliance of nonbelligerent naval powers, organized by Russia's Catherine the Great, to protect neutral trading rights during the war for American independence.
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
Treaty signed by the United States and the pro-British Iroquois granting Ohio country to the Americans. First treaty between Americans and Indians, and under it, the Indians ceded most of their own land
Private ships hired by a country to attack its enemies and prey on enemy shipping. American privateers captured many British warships and vessels
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country. In addition they granted generous boundaries to the USA.
Leader of a Patriot group of fighters known as the Green Mountain Boys
American General who was labeled a traitor when he assisted the British in a failed attempt to take the American fort at West Point.
A formerly British General, he then led the colonists to attack Montreal, then Quebec. Montgomery's attack on Quebec failed and he was killed, thus, the whole invasion into Canada failed.
Author of "Common Sense" and "The American Crisis"
Richard Henry Lee
A member of the Philadelphia Congress during the late 1770's. On June 7, 1776 he declared, "These United colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states." This resolution was the start of the Declaration of Independence and end to British relations.
Lord Charles Cornwallis
The commander of British troops in the South during the American Revolution, best known for his defeat at the Battle of Yorktown.
British Commanding General at the start of the American Revolution. Not very good
John ("Gentleman Johnny") Burgoyne
British general in the American Revolution who captured Fort Ticonderoga but lost the battle of Saratoga in 1777.
American intellectual, inventor, and politician He was sent to Paris as an envoy to help negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Comte de Rochambeau
Commanded a powerful French army of six thousand troops in the summer of 1780 and arrived in Newport, Rhode Island. They were planning a Franco - American attack on New York.
American general who commanded the Continental army in the South. A Quaker-reared tactician who distinguished himself by a strategy of delay by exhausting his enemies.
Mohawk leader who converted to Anglicanism and supported the British during the American Revolution. He believed that if Britain won it would restrain American expansion into the West
George Rogers Clark
Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America. He used the tactic of surprise and quickly captured each fort
Admiral de Grasse
A French admiral. He had a powerful fleet in the West Indies that he offered to Washington to help in an attack on Cornwallis at Yorktown.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APUSH Chapter 7 *(ONLY)* Vocab Quizlet
APUSH Chapter 8 (ONLY) Vocab Quizlet
AP US HISTORY CHAPTER 1&2
AMP Chapter 7 & 8 Nonvocab/people Quizlet
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