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BIO EXAM 2
Terms in this set (137)
What is the backbone of Organic molecules?
What is are isomers?
compounds with the same formula but different structural arrangements
What is lactose intolerance?
The inability to properly break down lactose, the main sugar found in milk.
What is lactase used for?
The enzyme that speeds the digestion of lactose into smaller sugars that their digestive system can absorb.
At what age does the production of lactase stop or decline?
At the age of 2
What breaks down lactose?
Is lactose a sugar or protein?
Is lactase a carbohydrate or protein?
Carbon-based molecules are called
In what ways can carbon skeletons differ?
Double bonds, straight, branched, or arranged in rings.
Why can some people drink milk, while others cannot?
Because they continue to produce lactase.
DNA is what type of molecule?
Organic compounds generally contain ______ in addition to carbon
A carbon atom has how many electrons in its valence shell?
It has 4 electrons
Carbon has four electrons in its valence shell but needs 8. What does it do to complete its valence shell?
Carbon completes its valence shell by sharing electrons with other atoms in four covalent bonds.
What are hydrocarbons?
molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
What provides most of the worlds energy?
What are the first 5 chemical groups called?
How many chemical groups are there?
There are 6
What are the 6 chemical groups?
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, phosphate, methyl
Are the first five chemical groups polar or non polar?
Is the sixth chemical group polar or non polar?
Non polar and also not reactive
What is dependent on a organic compounds properties?
The size and shape of its carbon backbone but also on the atoms attached to the skeleton
What do the hormones testosterone and estradiol do?
They have small differences that affect how molecules function and overall help produce male and female features
Compounds that contain one of the first five chemical groups are generally what?
What does hydrophilic mean?
water loving (polar), which means they are soluble in water.
The hydroxyl group consists of what two atoms?
A hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom. -OH
What are compounds containing hydroxyl groups called?
Ethanol is an example of what type of chemical group?
Hydroxyl which would be an alcohol
The carbonyl group consists of what atoms?
A carbon atom is linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom. C=O
Where can the carbonyl group be found?
It can be located within or at the end of a carbon skeleton
What are the most important molecules of all living things?
Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and nucleic acids
Which three classes of the four classes have gigantic molecules?
Carbohydrates,proteins, and nucleic acids
What are macromolecules?
Molecules containing large number of atoms
How do cells make macromolecules?
by joining smaller molecules into chains called polymers
What is a polymer?
a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks
What are the building blocks of polymers?
How do you make polymers?
Through dehydration reactions (monomers combine and in the process release a water molecule)
How do you break polymers?
Through hydrolysis (when you add a water molecule to a polymer they break back down into monomers)
Proteins are built from how many amino acids?
20 amino acids
DNA is built from 4 different monomers called
The key to the great diversity of polymers is...
arrangement, variation in the sequence in which monomers are strung together.
Are monomers universal or not?
Yes, they are universal.
Are polymers universal or not?
No, polymers are not universal.
Methamphetamine occurs as twin isomers; one is the addictive; illegal drug known as "crank" , the other is a sinus medication. How can you explain the differing effects?
Isomers have different structure and the shape of a molecule usually determines the way it functions in the body
What are the four organic compounds?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
Functional group definition
A cluster of two or more atoms attached to a molecule and having specific chemical properties
Is water polar or non-polar?
water is polar
Polar means what?
It has a charge
Non polar has what?
simple sugars are
Monosaccharides are the monomers of
carbohydrates; the most common is glucose. It is used as a direct energy source.
glucose and fructose can be hooked together by __________________ to form more complex sugars and ______________________
Dehydration reaction; polysaccharides
Mono is the Greek prefix for
Poly is the Greek prefix for
Di is the Greek prefix for
Which chemical group consists of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom?
Carbonyl group ( > C = O )
Which chemical group consists of a carbon double bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group?
Carboxyl group ( - COOH )
Which chemical group has a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen's?
Amino group ( -NH3 )
Which chemical group consists of a carbon bonded to 3 hydrogen atom?
Which chemical group can act as an acid?
carboxyl; it does so by contributing an H+ to a solution which then makes it ionized.
Which chemical group can act as a base?
Amino; it does by picking up an H+ from a solution which them make it ionized
What are the six elements that are found in organic molecules?
CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur)
What are the monomers of carbohydrates?
What are the monomers of protein?
What are the monomers of lipids?
glycerol and fatty acids
What are the monomers of nucleic acids?
What is the polymer of carbohydrates?
What is the polymer of protein?
What is the polymer of lipids?
What is the polymer of nucleic acids?
DNA and RNA
Lactose, as you read in the chapter introduction, is the disaccharide sugar in milk. It is formed from glucose and galactose. The formula for both these monosaccharides is C6H12O6. What is the formula for lactose?
C12H22O11 because dehydration reaction occurred meaning that glucose and galactose made a water molecule H2O. So you double the atom numbers but since it it lost two hydrogen's and one oxygen you take it off from the formula.
Monosaccharides generally have molecular formulas that are some multiple of
What are the trademarks of sugar?
Hydroxyl groups and carbonyl groups
What are isomers and six carbon atoms long?
Glucose and fructose
_______________ has 3 to 7 carbons
Cells construct a ______ from two monosaccharide monomers by a dehydration reaction
What is the most common disaccharide?
WHO recommends we consume _____ of sugar a year
The average American consumes _____ of sugar
What is the main consequence of high sugar consumption?
What are polysaccharides?
large macromolecules formed from hundreds and thousands of monosaccharides
Starch, glycogen and cellulose are all polymers of ______
What are the three polysaccharides?
starch, glycogen, cellulose
Starch is found in _____
Starch can be ________ or _____
Branched or unbranched
Glycogen can be found in
Glycogen is branched more than_____
cellulose can be found in
Cellulose is arranged ______ to each other, forming cable like bonds
What is chitin?
structural polysaccharide - to build exoskeleton, the hard case enclosing the animal
What are lipids?
A diverse group of molecules that do not mix well with water
fat, phospholipids, and steroids are _____
What are phospholipids?
The major components of cell membranes
How many fatty acids are in a phospholipid?
A negatively charged _______ group is attached to glycerols _______ carbon
What are steroids?
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Cholesterol is a precursor for
What is fats main function?
Fats contains 3 fatty acids and a _____
A fatty acid with no double bonds between carbon atoms is
A fatty acid with one or more double bonds between carbon atoms is______
Are animal fats saturated or unsaturated?
Are plants or fishes saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated; adding a kink to the third fatty acid
Are saturated fatty acids solid or liquid at room temperature?
Are unsaturated fatty acids solid or liquid at room temperature?
Phospholipids are the major components of ______
How many fatty acids do phospholipids contain?
2 fatty acids
Cholesterol is a ______
Explain why fats and steroids, which are structurally different, are both classified as lipids?
Fats and steroids are hydrophobic molecules, the key characteristic of lipids.
_______ is a polymer of small building blocks called amino acids
What are the eight functional categories of protein that our cells use?
Enzymes, transport proteins, defensive proteins, signal proteins, receptor proteins, contractile proteins, structural proteins and storage proteins
The function of each protein depends on its ______
A protein unravels, losing its specific shape and, as a result, its function. This is the definition for ______
Amino acids have what two chemical groups?
Amino and carboxyl groups
What is anything that occupies space and has mass?
Matter is found on Earth in three physical states:
solid, liquid, gas
A substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means is the definition of an ______
How many natural elements are there?
92 natural elements
How many elements are essential to life?
Which four elements make up over 96% of body mass?
Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
How many elements are essential to plant life?
These elements make up less than 0.01% of human body weight.
smallest unit of matter
What charge does a proton have?
What charge does a neutron have?
What charge does an electron have?
An atoms central core
An amino acid plus an amino acid makes a _______
Peptide bond or more specifically a dipeptide
Which part of an amino acid makes it hydrophobic or hydrophilic?
The R group
What is the bond between two amino acids called? What type of chemical reaction occurs to form this bond?
peptide bond; dehydration reaction
What are the four levels of protein structure?
primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary
Amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is programmed by a discrete unit of inheritance is the definition of
Two polynucleotides that wind around each other are called a ______
A pairs with
T or U
C pairs with
Twin DNA. Gains are held together by ________ bonds
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