Juvenile Justice Review
Under parens Patriae,
the King as sovereign acts to protect the children and other dependents
Offenders that are placed in corrections:
Are still part of the juvenile justice system
Sheriff's Deputies and Police Officers
are the law enforcement officers who have the most amount of contact with juveniles
The booking stage:
is where information is obtained about juvenile suspects, including their names, addresses and ages.
are proceedings for establishing a trial date where a formal plea to charges is entered
Over two million juveniles come into contact with the following system annually:
Regarding decisions about juvenile offenders, intake officers have:
The following are components of the criminal justice system
Law Enforcement, Legislature, and the Courts
Juveniles may be:
taken into custody, arrested, and taken to shelters and group homes
Obtaining one's name, address, fingerprints, photograph, and other vital information is part of the
The Walnut street Jail was innovative in that it:
segregated male from female inmates, created solitary confinement, and segregated more serious offenders from less serious ones.
The child-saving movement sought to:
provide shelter for wayward youth
Truancy statutes were aimed at;
youths who avoided attending school.
The Uniform Crime Reports publish information about:
reported crime, juvenile delinquency, felonies, and misdemeanors.
The federal juvenile court is called:
there is no federal juvenile courts
The first juvenile court was established in:
Illinois in 1899
Not all juvenile courts operate
the same way
Throughout much of the 20th Century:
juveniles had little or no legal standing in US courts.
Status offenders would include all juveniles who:
commit acts that would be crimes if adults committed them
The mose common age of accountability in the United States is:
The idea that a single event or factor is responsible for a large amount of delinquent behavior is a characteristic of:
Baccaria believed that punishment should be:
swift, certain, and just
Consistent with Beccaria's philosophy is:
The idea that certain persons are destined to be delinquent is consistent with
Youths at risk might be
The uncontrolled part of the personality
has been linked with serious psychological disturbance
Social Learning Theory
suggest that children learn violence from their parents.
are considered to be a part of those "at Risk"
Early intervention for at-risk juveniles
is considered by most professionals as important in delinquency prevention
Discretionary powers of police involving juveniles:
are not limited
Creative solutions for community concerns of police, whereby police officers work closely with the residence, is generally reffered to as
One reason police officers spend less time today policing juvenile offenders than they did in previous years is:
that juvenile courts tend to be too lenient with offenders, excessive paperwork involving processing juveniles, and that more serious adult offenders are involved.
Police Officer suspicions aroused by youth who are:
not polite enough, too polite, and poorly dressed.
Whenever police officers respond to citizen complaints involving youth, their actions will ususally lead to:
verbal warnings or reprimands
Delinquency among girls:
appears to be increasing at a faster rate that among boys
Juveniles my not have their recoreds
as juveniles erased as the result of an expunement order
Police officers can
fingerprint and photograph juvenile suspects for any reason
Often police officers
determine their response to juveniles on the street depending upon how the juveniles react to them
Community Policing tends to
bring the officers out of their cars and more into the community
Street confrontations with juveniles by police:
may range from verbal warning to the use of deadly force
Female juveniles tend to be :
treated more paternalistically compared with male juveniles when appearing before juvenile court judges
Insuring the juvenile's right to due process,
is a key reason to have an attorney present during intake proceedings
Typically the treatment of juveniles by juvenile courts is:
related to gender
Intake officers may negotiate with
juveniles and their parents and work out an informal resolution of a non-serious case
It is within the discretion of the intake officers:
to place certain juveniles deemed dangerous in secure confinement untill a subsequent juvenile court appearance
The absence of one's parents from an intake proceeding is:
The coercive nature of the intake officer role is that intake officer may require youths to:
make restitution, seek counseling, and perform community service.
A common measure of program effectiveness is:
Regarding due process rights, juveniles:
have due process rights.
The case of In Re Winship resulted in the standard of:
beyond a reasonable doubt
Changes in the standard of proof in juvenile courts have made cases against juveniles:
more difficult to prove
Fingerprinting and photographing juveniles during the early stages of their process in most jurisdictions is:
Constitutional, conducted, and routine
When cases against juveniles are dismissed with prejudice, this means that prosecutors may:
not bring those charges against the juvenile at a later date
The standard of proof in juvenile court proceedings where one's loss of freedom is a possibility is:
preponderance of the evidence
Juveniles who do not have counsel:
often receive harsher sentences, crime for crime, in adjudicated as delinquent compared with juveniles who do not have counsel and are adjudicated as delinquent.
Juvenile are entitled to:
attorneys as a matter of right in all stages of their delinquent processing
Juveniles ordinarily participate in:
victim-offender mediation programs.
Juvenile justice professionals believe that:
less time ought to transpire between when a juvenile is charged with a delinquent act and the adjudicatory hearing is held regarding the matter.
Juvenile court prosecutors have:
broad discretionary powers relating to filing charges against particular juveniles.
A risk/needs inventory includes
predictions about: one's future dangerousness, the most effective treatments, the most relevant services.
Any circumstance that increases the seriousness of one's delinquent acts is called:
Those juveniles who have the greatest chance of becoming career adult offenders are those labeled as:
Most juvenile judges regard secure confinement for juveniles as:
a last resort
A common risk component is
age at first adjudication, family relationships, and prior delinquent behavior.
Overcrowding is often a factor responsible for:
the ineffectiveness of rehabilitation in secure juvenile facilities.
Police Officers are not responsible for
completing predispositional reports on juvenile offenders they have arrested
One's alcohol/drug dependencies are often:
major components on needs assessment instruments.
Death or serious injury caused by a juvenile:
is considered a mitigating circumstance
Annually over _______ percent of all juvenile cases refeerred to juvenile courts are resolved informally.
is a pre-adjudicatory option exercised by juvenile justice system actors, including intake officers and prosecutors.
All juvenile offenders are eligible for
An unintended consequence of diversions is:
to reduce a juvenile judge's scope of personal power over a particular class of juveniles.
One Unintended consequence of diversion is:
growing cynicism among juvenile justice system is too lenient
Youths can participate in:
drug or alcohol treatment or either group or individual psychotherapy.
Written or verbal warnings issued by juvenile court judges as the sentence imposed at the time of adjudication are:
One unintended consequence of diversion is:
Diversion works best for:
first time offenders
Informal juries of one's peers are often referred to as:
Vocational assistance and job placement are essential functions performed by:
day treatment programs.
Vocational training is:
included as a part of rehabilitative community programming
is a constitutional intermediate punishment
Scared Straight is:
a program where juvenile offenders actually have lengthy conversations with prisoners in adult prisons.
the most common sentence in juvenile courts.
One problem with obligating youths to make restitution to victims is:
that many of them cannot afford it.
may be one condition in a probation program
Home Confinement is:
tougher than most people imagine it is.
Individualized treatments are a part of:
the balanced approach
Typically intensively supervised probation makes it easier to detect:
Compared with the costs of secure confinement, intermediate punishment programs generally are:
less costly, more rehabilitative, and characterized with lower rates of recidivism
Even with the most current supervisory methods and improvements:
Jail suicides are a viable issue in juvenile corrections.
Many youths who become involved in wilderness experiences:
have low self-esteem and inadequate survival skills
Family group homes are a:
form of non-secure custodial placement
Split sentences occure whenever juvenile court judges give juveniles 50 percent of their original sentence as flat time to be served.
Group homes are notorious for their homosexuality>
Different aspects of supervising youthful offenders would collectively be termed:
When a juvenile's parole program is terminated, this means that the juvenile may be:
returned to secure confinement, placed in a different type of parole program, and or subject to more intensive supervision.
Wilderness clients are ususally
Offenders with disciplinary problems
Privatization of juvenile corrections is :
Juvenile parole boards have been criticized because they:
lack uniform standards governing parole decision making, are subjective, and issue disparate decisions.