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WHS APES UNIT 2 TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY
Terms in this set (80)
Scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their non-living environment.
Any form of life.
A group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance, behavior, chemistry, and genetic make-up.
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Place where a population lives.
All the different populations that live together in an area.
A system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms with each other and their non-living environment
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars.
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
Respiration that requires oxygen.
Respiration in the absence of oxygen. This produces lactic acid.
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms.
A transitional zone where ecosystems meet.
Any nonliving component of an environment.
Describes living factors in the environment.
Range of Tolerance
Range of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for populations of a particular species to stay alive and grow, develop, and function normally.
Law of Tolerance
The existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by the species.
An organism that can make its own food.
organism in ecosystem that obtains energy from other organisms.
Primary consumer (herbivore)
Organisms that only eat producers.
An animal (or sometimes a plant) that feeds on animals.
An organism that eats primary consumers.
Tertiary (higher level) consumer
Animals that feed on animal-eating animals.
A consumer that eats both plants and animals.
A carnivore that feeds on the bodies of dead organisms.
Include detritus feeders and decomposers that feed on detritus, or parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms.
Extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter in leaf litter, plant debris, and animal dung.
Fungi and bacteria that break complex organic material into smaller molecules.
A simple model that scientists use to show how matter and energy move through an ecosystem.
A complex arrangement of interrelated food chains illustrating the flow of energy between interdependent organisms.
Any class of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain, as primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers.
A measure of the total dry mass of organisms within a particular region.
Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another in a food chain or web.
Gross primary productivity (GPP)
Rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store an amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time.
Net primary productivity (NPP)
Gross primary productivity minus the rate at which producers use energy through respiration. Energy available as food by other organisms after respiration.
Caused by sulfuric and nitric acids resulting in lowered pH of surface waters.
Important environmental benefits, such as clean air to breathe, clean water to drink, and fertile soil in which to grow crops, that ecosystems provide.
Cone-producing plants that develop seeds on or in the cones. Found in the Taiga.
Biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw.
Trees, such as oaks and maples, and other plants that survive during dry seasons or cold seasons by shedding their leaves.
A biome at the northernmost limits of plant growth and at high altitudes, characterized by dwarf woody shrubs, grasses, mosses, and lichens. Permafrost exists in this biome.
A layer of permanently frozen subsoil found in the tundra.
Plants that store water in the roots, stems, leaves or fruit.
shows the average temperatures and precipitation in a place.
A grassy plain in tropical and subtropical regions, with few trees.
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
Full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions.
a change in species composition, physical conditions, or other ecological factors at the boundary between two ecosystems.
The number of individuals of each species.
Number of different species in an area.
Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem.
nonnative species (exotic/alien species)
Species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans.
Species that serve as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded.
a species whose impact on its community or ecosystem are much larger and more influential than would be expected from mere abundance.
In a biological community various populations sharing environmental resources through specialization thereby reducing direct competition.
An interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.
Interaction between two organisms of different species in which one organism, called the predator, captures and feeds on parts or all of another organism, called the prey.
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species.
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed.
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit.
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
The gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established.
Succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present.
Succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil.
First species to populate an area during primary succession.
Early successional plant species
Tiny plants such as, small perennial grasses, herbs and ferns and grow close to the ground.
Grasses and low shrubs that are less hardy than early successional plant species.
Late successional plant species
Mostly trees that can tolerate shade and form a fairly stable complex forest community.
A stable, mature community that undergoes little or no change in species over time.
The range of genetic material present in a gene pool or population of a species.
The number of different species in a community.
A group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another.
Second Law of Thermodynamics
When energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (i.e. heat is released).
Law of Conservation of Matter
Matter is not created nor destroyed in any chemical or physical change, it is only changed from one form to another.
Only 10% of the total energy produced at each trophic level is available to the next level. The amount of energy passed up to the levels of the food pyramid reduces as you go up.
Density Dependent Factors
Factors that influence population size and depend upon the density of a population -i.e. competition, predation, parasitism.
Density Independent Factors
Factors such as temperature, storms, flood, drought, or habitat disruption affects all populations, regardless of their density or population in the area.
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
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