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AB PSYCH GR 1
Terms in this set (279)
The scientific study of abnormal behavior undertaken to describe, predict, explain, and change abnormal patterns of functioning.
Workers in the field of abnormal psych that gather information systematically so that they can describe, predict, and explain the phenomena they study
role is to detect, assess, and treat abnormal patterns of functioning.
4D's of psych disorders
Different, extreme, unusual patterns, differ from society norms
unpleasant and upsetting to the person
interfering with the person's ability to conduct daily activities in a constructive way
poses risks to not only self but others
stated and unstated rules for proper conduct
Behavior, thoughts, and emotions that break norms of psychological functioning
A society's norms grow from its ___________ or its history, values, institutions, habits, skills, technology, and arts
Judgements of abnormality depend on ______ and _____
norms & specific circumstances & values of that society
T or F Some people who function abnormally maintain a positive frame of mind
Ice Breakers, who continue to perform well in their jobs and enjoy fulfilling relationships, would probably be considered
unusual not dysfunctional or distressful
Who found the concept of mental illness invalid, that the problem was within in the environment/living and not in the person themselves
example of behavior that fits the 4Ds but is not considered abnormal
an unusual pattern with which others have no right to interfere
person who deviates from common behavior patterns or displays odd or whimsical behavior
ratio of eccentric
1 in 5000
difference between eccentrics and those suffering from mental illness (besides deviant behavior being accepted)?
unusual behavior of persons with mental disorders is thrust upon them and usually causes them suffering, eccentricity is chosen freely and provides pleasure
the thought processes of eccentrics are not severely disrupted and do not leave these persons dysfunctional.
A systematic procedure designed to help change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior. Also called _____
therapy have three key features:
Sufferer, healer, series of contacts
seeks relief from the healer
person who expertise is accepted by the sufferer and his or her social group.
series of contacts
between the healer and the sufferer, through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer's emotional state, attitudes, and behavior
therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims.... They are not in agreement as to what constitutes a successful outcome of their work. They cannot agree as to what constitutes a failure. It seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided."
Some clinicians view abnormality as an _________ and then view therapy as a _______. View sufferer as ______
illness, cure, patient
Another view is abnormality is a problem in ________, and therapists are ________. View sufferer as ______
living, teachers, client
how many adults are viewed as abnormal....adolescents
What did ancient people think was the cause of abnormalities
victory of evil spirits taking over the body
What was the cure for evil spirits in the body
force them out
When was abnormality first seen
Stone Age- half a million years ago
An ancient operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull, to treat abnormal behavior and let evil spirits out
Trephination can treat which two
hallucinations, in which people saw or heard things not actually present, or melancholia, characterized by extreme sadness and immobility.
What did Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew AND chrsitians believe the cause of MI to be
how did the Egyptian, Chinese, and Hebrew, and christians treat MI
coax the evil spirits to leave or to make the person's body an uncomfortable place in which to live
an ancient doctor, healer, or priest, they were called upon for religious ceremonies for abnormal people
What did Hippocrates believe was the causes of abnormal behaviors?
humors (greek & roman)
imbalance of four fluids
what were the four fluids
yellow bile, black bile, blood, and phlegm
how did hippocrates treat MI
Excess of black bile underlying sadness could be reduced by a quiet life, a diet of vegetables, exercise, celibacy, and even bleeding.
Who was the main power during the middle ages
What did the church believe was the cause of MI during MA
Demons & Satan
large numbers of people apparently shared absurd false beliefs and imagined sights or sounds
groups of people would suddenly start to jump, dance, and go into convulsions... All were convinced that they had been bitten and possessed by a wolf spider, now called a tarantula, and they sought to cure their disorder by performing a dance called a ________
people thought they were possessed by wolves or other animals. They acted wolflike and imagined that fur was growing all over their bodies
how did the MA treat MI
Exorcisms or torture
What happened towards the MA
started receiving care in hospital
first physician to specialize in mental illness, believed that the mind was as susceptible to sickness as the body was. He is now considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology.
Different care during the renaissance for MI
1. kept at home while their families were aided financially by the local parish.
2. religious shrines were devoted to the humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders
world's first "colony" of mental patients.
forerunner of today's community mental health programs
Gheel in Belgium
type of institution that first became popular in the sixteenth century to provide care for persons with mental disorders. Most became virtual prisons.
institutions whose primary purpose was to care for people with mental illness
Once the asylums started to overflow, however, they became
virtual prisons where patients were held in filthy conditions and treated with unspeakable cruelty.
Popular asylum/tourist attraction in 1547
the first site of asylum reform... who was the chief physician (paris)
La Bicêtre, an asylum in Paris for male patients....Phillipe Pinel
What did pinel argue...was he successful?
He argued that the patients were sick people whose illnesses should be treated with sympathy and kindness rather than chains and beatings .... yes
Who found the york retreat
what was the york retreat
a rural estate where about 30 mental patients lived as guests in quiet country houses and were treated with a combination of rest, talk, prayer, and manual work
A nineteenth-century approach to treating people with mental dysfunction that emphasized moral guidance and humane and respectful treatment.
The person most responsible for the early spread of moral treatment in the United States
eminent physician at Pennsylvania Hospital who is now considered the father of American psychiatry.
Treatment by Rush
he required that the hospital hire intelligent and sensitive attendants to work closely with patients, reading and talking to them and taking them on regular walks. He also suggested that it would be therapeutic for doctors to give small gifts to their patients now and then.
made humane care a public and political concern in the United States
Dix's campaign led to
new laws and greater government funding to improve the treatment of people with mental disorders
After Dix, each state was supposed to establish
state hospitals for moral treatment
several factors led to a reversal of the moral treatment movement :
1. speed with which the movement had spread
2. As mental hospitals multiplied
severe money and staffing shortages developed, recovery rates declined, and overcrowding in the hospitals became a major problem.
3. assumption behind moral treatment that all patients could be cured if treated with humanity and dignity.
4. emergence of a new wave of prejudice against people with mental disorders. The public came to view them as strange and dangerous, undeserving of donations or government funds.
5. many of the patients entering public mental hospitals in the United States in the late nineteenth century were poor foreign immigrants, whom the public had little interest in helping.
What happened early 20th century
Long-term hospitalization became the rule once again.
The view that abnormal psychological functioning has physical causes.
The view that the chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological.
two key people of somatogenic perspective
published an influential textbook arguing that physical factors, such as fatigue, are responsible for mental dysfunction.
developed the first modern system for classifying abnormal behaviors, listing their physical causes and discussing their course
One of the most important discoveries was that an organic disease, ______ led to ______
syphillis, general paresis
an irreversible disorder that featured both mental symptoms such as delusions of grandeur and physical ones like paralysis
njected matter from syphilis sores into patients suffering from general paresis and found that none of the patients developed symptoms of syphilis.
the elimination (through medical or other means) of individuals' ability to reproduce
Not until the 1950s, when a number of effective _____ were finally discovered, did the somatogenic perspective truly begin to pay off for patients.
procedure in which a person is placed in a trancelike mental state during which he or she becomes extremely suggestible
His patients suffered from hysterical disorders, mysterious bodily ailments that had no apparent physical basis.
patients sit in a darkened room filled with music; then he appeared, dressed in a colorful costume, and touched the troubled area of each patient's body with a special rod.
showed that hysterical disorders could actually be induced in otherwise normal people while they were under the influence of hypnotism
discovered that his patients sometimes awoke free of hysterical symptoms after speaking openly under hypnosis about past upsetting events.
Either the theory or the treatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology.
holds that many forms of abnormal and normal psychological functioning are psychogenic
Freud believed that ________ psychological processes are at the root of such functioning
developed the technique of psychoanalysis, a form of discussion in which clinicians help troubled people gain insight into their unconscious psychological processes.
treatment to patients in their offices for sessions of approximately an hour
Drugs that mainly affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning.
which correct extremely confused and distorted thinking;
which lift the mood of depressed people
reduce tension and worry.
discharge patients almost immediately.
The discharge, begun during the 1960s, of large numbers of patients from long-term institutional care so that they might be treated in community programs.
primary mode of treatment for people with severe psychological disturbances as well as for those with more moderate problems.
community care for people with severe psychological disturbances
community mental health approach.
persons with severe disturbances fail to make lasting recoveries, and they
shuttle back and forth between the mental hospital and the community. After release from the hospital, they at best receive minimal care and often wind up living in decrepit rooming houses or on the streets.
t least ________ people with such disturbances are homeless on any given day; another _______ or more are inmates of jails and prisons
individuals seek out a self-employed therapist for counseling services.
outpatient therapy is also offered in a number of less expensive settings, such as
community mental health centers, crisis intervention centers, family service centers, and other social service agencies.
_____ of every _____ adults in the United States receives outpatient treatment for psychological disorders in the course of a year
A key feature of community mental health programs that seek to prevent or minimize psychological disorders.
The study and enhancement of positive feelings, traits, and abilities.
The field of psychology that examines the impact of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and similar factors on our behaviors and thoughts and focuses on how such factors may influence the origin, nature, and treatment of abnormal behavior.
a program in which the insurance company determines such key issues as which therapists its clients may choose, the cost of sessions, and the number of sessions for which a client may be reimbursed
managed care program
percent of all privately insured persons in the United States are currently enrolled in managed care programs
why is the mcp dislike
programs inevitably shorten therapy (often for the worse), unfairly favor treatments whose results are not always lasting (for example, drug therapy), pose a special hardship for those with severe mental disorders, and result in treatments determined by insurance companies rather than by therapists
A key problem with insurance coverage
—both managed care and other kinds of insurance programs—is that reimbursements for mental disorders tend to be lower than those for medical disorders.
biological, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic-existential, and sociocultural
physicians who complete three to four additional years of training after medical school (a residency) in the treatment of abnormal mental functioning
rofessionals who earn a doctorate in clinical psychology by completing four to five years of graduate training in abnormal functioning and its treatment and also complete a one-year internship in a mental health setting.
have tried to determine which concepts best explain and predict abnormal behavior, which treatments are most effective, and what kinds of changes may be required.
The use of computer technology, such as Skype or avatars, to provide therapy.
that is, they collect and evaluate information through careful observations. These observations in turn enable them to pinpoint and explain relationships between variables.
which typically is focused on one individual, A detailed account of a person's life and psychological problems.
approaches that are usually used to gather information about many individuals.
hunches, that certain variables are related in certain ways—and to draw broad conclusions as to why.
Limitations of case studies
reported by biased observers, relies on subjective evidence (low internal validity), provides little basis for generalization (low external validity), candidates are not randomly selected
Three features of the correlational and experimental methods enable clinical investigators to gain general insights:
(1) The researchers typically observe many individuals (see MindTech below). (2) The researchers apply procedures uniformly and can thus repeat, or replicate, their investigations. And (3) the researchers use statistical tests to analyze the results of a study.
the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other.
research procedure used to determine this "co-relationship" between variables.
When variables change the same way, their correlation is said to have a positive direction and is referred to as a
the value of one variable increases as the value of the other variable decreases.
The direction and magnitude of a correlation are often calculated numerically and expressed by a statistical term
perfect positive correlation
The sign of the coefficient (+ or -) signifies the _____of the correlation; the number represents its _____
The closer the correlation is to .00, the _____ in magnitude, it is.
If the statistical analysis indicates that chance is ______ to account for the correlation they found, researchers may conclude that their findings reflect a real correlation in the general population.
pros of correlational research
generalize their correlations to people beyond the ones they have studied. Furthermore, researchers can easily repeat correlational studies using new samples of participants to check the results of earlier studies.
Although correlations allow researchers to describe the relationship between two variables, they do not ____ the relationship (
reveal the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a particular population.
number of new cases that emerge during a given period of time.
total number of cases in the population during a given period; includes both existing and new cases.
correlational studies of another kind, researchers observe the same individuals on many occasions over a long period of time.
esearch procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable is observed.
The manipulated variable is called the ___ and the variable being observed is called the _____
In an experiment, a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable.
gain, if that likelihood is very low, the improvement is considered to be statistically significant, and the experimenter may conclude with some confidence that it is due to the independent variable.
To guard against confounds, researchers should include three important features in their experiments—
a control group, random assignment, and a blind design (
In an experiment, a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable.
In an experiment, the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation.
A selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group.
An experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control condition.
something that looks or tastes like real therapy but has none of its key ingredients.
that is, experimenters may have expectations that they unintentionally transmit to the participants in their studies.
While either the participants or the experimenter may be kept blind in an experiment, it is best that both be blind—a research strategy called
investigators do not randomly assign participants to control and experimental groups but instead make use of groups that already exist in the world at large
nature itself manipulates the independent variable, and the experimenter observes the effects.
Here they induce laboratory participants to behave in ways that seem to resemble real-life abnormal behavior and then conduct experiments on the participants in the hope of shedding light on the real-life abnormality.
he participants seem to give up, lose their initiative, and become sad
Here a single participant is observed both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable
single subject experimental design
An ethics committee formed in a research facility that is empowered to protect the rights and safety of human research participants. It reviews and may require changes in each proposed study at the facility before approving or disapproving the study.
Researchers use the _______ to uncover nomothetic principles of abnormal psychological functioning.
Two widely used forms of the correlational method
epidemiological studies and longitudinal studies.
pro about correlational method
This method allows researchers to draw broad conclusions about abnormality in the population at large.
pro about experiments
This method allows researchers to determine the causes of various conditions or events.
important participant rights that the IRB protects is
the right of informed consent, an acceptable risk/benefit balance, and privacy (confidentiality or anonymity).
Biological Perspective- abnormalities are sometimes the result of
genetic inheritance, evolution, or viral infections.
Biological therapists use ______ & ______methods to help people overcome their psychological problems.
physical & chemical
the leading methods are
drug therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, and, on rare occasions, psychosurgery.
Psychodynamic theorists believe that an individual's behavior, whether normal or abnormal, is determined by
underlying psychological forces.
They consider psychological conflicts to be rooted in
early parent-child relationships and traumatic experiences.
The psychodynamic model was formulated by
three dynamic forces
id, ego, superego
those three dynamic forces produce
thought, feeling, and behavior
Other psychodynamic theories
ego theory, self theory, and object relations theory.
the psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force
the psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the self - our unified personality
object relations theory
the psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior
a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations
the use of certain medications to treat or reduce the symptoms of a mental disorder
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
brain surgery on human patients intended to relieve severe and otherwise intractable mental or behavioral problems
Psychodynamic therapists help people uncover
past traumas and the inner conflicts that have resulted from them.
psychodynamic therapists use techniques such as
free association and interpretations of psychological phenomena such as resistance, transference, and dreams.
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a parent)
products of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality
the leading contemporary psychodynamic approaches include
short-term psychodynamic therapies and relational psychoanalytic therapy.
short-term psychodynamic therapy
insight therapy that is time limited and focused on trying to help clients correct the immediate problems in their lives
relational psychoanalytic therapy
a form of psychodynamic therapy that believes the reactions and beliefs of therapists should be openly included in the therapy process
focus on behaviors and propose that they develop in accordance with the principles of learning.
three types of conditioning
classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone.
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
The goal of the behavioral therapies is to
identify the client's problematic behaviors and replace them with more appropriate ones
effective in treating phobias.
the classical conditioning approach of systematic desensitization
A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
When people display abnormal patterns of functioning, cognitive theorists point to cognitive problems, such as
maladaptive assumptions & illogical thinking processes
the inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems
->cognitive cause for GAD
illogical thinking processes
Faulty assumptions and attitudes
...Another source of abnormal functioning, according to cognitive theorists.
Beck's Cognitive Therapy
a type of cognitive therapy, developed by Aaron Beck, in which the therapist works to develop a warm relationship with the person and has the person carefully consider the evidence for his or her beliefs in order to see the errors in his or her thinking
focuses on the human need to successfully deal with philosophical issues such as self-awareness, values, meaning, and choice.
Humanists believe that people are driven to _____. When this drive is interfered with, abnormal behavior may result.
the process by which people achieve their full potential
tries to create a very supportive therapy climate in which people can look at themselves honestly and acceptingly, thus opening the door to self-actualization.
Try to help clients deal with things of their past that they have denied and will use body language and other nonverbal cues to understand what clients are really saying
According to ____ abnormal behavior results from hiding from life's responsibilities.
existential therapists believe in
encourage people to accept responsibility for their lives, to recognize their freedom to choose a different course, and to choose to live with greater meaning.
focuses on an individual's family and social interactions
3 factors of FSP
social labels and roles, social connections and supports, and the family system.
practitioners from the family-social perspective may practice
group, family, or couple therapy or community treatment.
holds that an individual's behavior, whether normal or abnormal, is best understood when examined in the light of his or her unique cultural context, including the values of that culture and the special external pressures faced by members of that culture.
approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of cultural minority groups.
suggests that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
most effective treatment for depression.
drug therapy combined with cognitive therapy
Clinical practitioners are interested primarily in
gathering individual information about each client.
they seek an understanding of the _____ and _____ of a client's problems through clinical assessment.
specific nature and origins
assessment tools must be
standardized, reliable, valid
the same for everyone
Ability of a test to yield very similar scores for the same individual over repeated testings
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
Most clinical assessment methods fall into three general categories:
clinical interviews, tests, and observations.
A clinical interview may be either
unstructured or structured.
no fixed set of questions and no systematic scoring procedure
involves asking probing questions to find out what the applicant is like
A selection interview that consists of a predetermined set of questions for the interviewer to ask
Types of clinical tests include
projective, personality, response, psychophysiological, neurological, neuropsychological, and intelligence tests.
a personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes
tests designed to measure a person's responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes
which measure physiological responses as possible indicators of psychological problems
which are designed to measure brain structure and activity directly.
measure cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances on certain tasks; clinicians interpret abnormal performances as an indicator of underlying brain problems
consisting of a series of tasks requiring people to use various verbal and nonverbal skills.
Types of observation include
naturalistic observation, analog observation, and self-monitoring.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
focused on children interacting with their parents, married couples attempting to settle a disagreement, speech-anxious people giving a speech, and fearful people approaching an object they find frightening.
people observe themselves and carefully record the frequency of certain behaviors, feelings, or thoughts as they occur over time
The diagnosis is chosen from a classification system. The system used most widely in North America is the
The treatment decisions of therapists may be influenced by
assessment information, the diagnosis, the clinician's theoretical orientation and familiarity with research, and the state of knowledge in the field.
therapy outcome studies have led to three general conclusions:
(1) people in therapy are usually better off than people with similar problems who receive no treatment; (2) the various therapies do not appear to differ dramatically in their general effectiveness; and (3) certain therapies or combinations of therapies do appear to be more effective than others for certain disorders.
therapists currently advocate empirically supported treatment
the active identification, promotion, and teaching of those interventions that have received clear research support.
may create a climate in which cases of generalized anxiety disorder are more likely to develop
societal dangers, economic stress, or related racial and cultural pressures
In the original psychodynamic explanation, Freud said that generalized anxiety disorder may develop when
anxiety is excessive and defense mechanisms break down and function poorly.
Treatment for GAD for psychodynamic
free association, interpretation, and related psychodynamic techniques to help people overcome this problem.
humanistic theorist, believed that people with generalized anxiety disorder fail to receive
unconditional positive regard from significant others during their childhood and so become overly critical of themselves.
humanistic approach to GAD
Cognitive theorists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is caused by
maladaptive assumptions and beliefs
cognitive approach to GAD
Cognitive therapists help their clients to change such thinking and to find more effective ways of coping during stressful situations.
Biological theorists hold that generalized anxiety disorder results from
low activity of the neurotransmitter GABA.
Biological treatment for GAD
antianxiety drugs, relaxation training, and biofeedback
a system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension
a severe, persistent, and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation.
fear of objects or specific situations or events
fear of open spaces
Behaviorists believe that phobias are often learned from
environment through classical conditioning or through modeling, and then are maintained by avoidance behaviors.
Specific phobias have been treated most successfully with
behavioral exposure techniques by which people are led to confront the objects they fear.
the exposure for phobias may be gradual and relaxed (desensitization), intense (flooding), or vicarious (modeling).
reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed
A behavioral treatment for phobias that involves prolonged exposure to a feared stimulus, thereby providing maximal opportunity for the conditioned fear response to be extinguished.
the therapist who confronts the feared object or situation while the fearful person observes (
experience severe and persistent anxiety about social or performance situations in which they may be scrutinized by others or be embarrassed.
Cognitive theorists believe that the disorder is particularly likely to develop among people who
hold and act on certain dysfunctional social beliefs and expectations.
Therapists who treat social anxiety disorder typically distinguish two components of this disorder:
Social fears and poor social skills
treatment for SAD
drug therapy, exposure techniques, group therapy, various cognitive approaches, or a combination of these interventions. They may try to improve social skills by social skills training.`
periodic, discrete bouts of panic that occur suddenly.
panic disorder may be accompanied by agoraphobia
biological theorists believe that abnormal _______ activity in the brain's locus coeruleus may be central to panic disorder. also related neurotransmitters or a panic brain circuit may also play key roles.
Biological therapists use certain ______ drugs or powerful benzodiazepines to treat people with this disorder.
Cognitive theorists suggest that panic-prone people become preoccupied with some of their _____ and misinterpret them as signs of medical catastrophe.
cognitive treatment for panic disorders
Cognitive therapists teach patients to interpret their physical sensations more accurately and to cope better with anxiety.
beset by obsessions, perform compulsions, or both.
According to the psychodynamic view, obsessive-compulsive disorder arises out of a
battle between id impulses and ego defense mechanisms.
Behaviorists believe that compulsive behaviors develop through
Behaviorist treatment for OCD
combines prolonged exposure with response prevention.
Cognitive theorists believe that obsessive-compulsive disorder grows from
a normal human tendency to have unwanted and unpleasant thoughts. The efforts of some people to understand, eliminate, or avoid such thoughts actually lead to obsessions and compulsions.
Cognitive treatment for OCD
educate clients and help them correct their misinterpretations of the unwanted thoughts.
Research suggests that a combined cognitive-behavioral approach may be more effective than either therapy alone.
Biological researchers have tied obsessive-compulsive disorder to
low serotonin activity and abnormal functioning in the orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei.
biological treatment for OCD
Antidepressant drugs that raise serotonin activity are a useful form of treatment.
group of obsessive-compulsive-related disorders
hoarding disorder, trichotillomania, excoriation (skin-picking) disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder.
a disorder in which individuals feel compelled to save items and become very distressed if they try to discard them, resulting in an excessive accumulation of items
a disorder characterized by the repeated pulling out of one's own hair
Skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping
body dysmorphic disorder
involves excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in physical appearance
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