Prosody, the defining feature of expressive reading, comprises all of the variables of timing, phrasing, emphasis, and intonation that speakers use to help convey aspects of meaning and to make their speech lively. One of the challenges of oral reading is adding back the prosodic cues that are largely absent from written language.
Researchers have found strong links between oral reading prosody and general reading achievement. For example, after comparing students' reading prosody in first and second grades with their reading comprehension at the end of third grade, Miller and Schwanenflugel (2008) concluded that, "early acquisition of an adult-like intonation contour predicted better comprehension." Another study, which included more than 1,750 fourth graders participating in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), found a strong correlation between prosody and overall reading achievement (Daane, Campbell, Grigg, Goodman, & Oranje, 2005).
In the context of oral reading, prosody can reflect linguistic features, such as sentence structure, as well as text features, such as punctuation. Skilled readers pick up on these features, and respond to them when reading aloud, as when they pause briefly at relevant commas, pause slightly longer at sentence boundaries, raise their pitch at the end of yes-no questions, and lower their pitch at the end of declarative sentences.
Picture Books Interdependence of art and text. Story of Concept presented through combination of text and illustration. Classification based on format, not genre. All genres appear in picture books.
Poetry & Verse Condensed language, imagery. Distilled, rhythmic expression of imaginative thoughts and perceptions.
Folklore Literary heritage of humankind. Traditional stories, myths, legends, nursery rhymes, and songs from the past. Oral tradition; no known author.
Fantasy Imaginative worlds, make-believe. Stories set in places that do not exist, about people and creatures that could not exist, or events that could not happen.
Science Fiction Based on extending physical laws and scientific principles to their logical outcomes. Stories about what might occur in the future.
Realistic Fiction "What if" stories, illusion of reality. Events could happen in real world, characters seem real; contemporary setting.
Historical Fiction Set in the past, could have happened. Story reconstructs events of past age, things that could have or did occur.
Biography Plot and theme based on person's life. An account of a person's life, or part of a life history; letters, memoirs, diaries, journals, autobiographies.
Nonfiction Facts about the real world. Informational books that explain a subject or concept.
(John) Newbery Medal
The Newbery Medal honors the author of the most distinguished contribution to American literature for children.
(Randolph) Caldecott Medal
The Caldecott Medal honors the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children.
(May Hill) Arbuthnot Honor Lecture Award
The Arbuthnot award honors an author, critic, librarian, historian, or teacher of children's literature, of any country, who then presents a lecture at a winning host site.
(Mildred L.) Batchelder Award
The Batchelder Award is given to an American publisher for a children's book considered to be the most outstanding of those books originally published in a language other than English in a country other than the United States, and subsequently translated into English and published in the United States.
(Pura) Belpré Medal
The Belpré Medal honors a Latino/Latina writer and illustrator whose works best portray, affirm, and celebrate the Latino cultural experience in an outstanding work of literature for children and youth.
(Andrew) Carnegie Medal
The Carnegie Medal honors the producer of the most outstanding video production for children released during the preceding year.
(Theodor Seuss) Geisel Medal
The Theodor Seuss Geisel Medal honors the author(s) and illustrator(s) of the most distinguished contribution to the body of American children's literature known as beginning reader books published in the United States during the preceding year.
(ALSC/Booklist/YALSA) Odyssey Award for Excellence in Audiobook Production
The Odyssey Award will be awarded annually to the best audiobook produced for children and/or young adults, available in English in the United States.
(Robert F.) Sibert Informational Book Medal
The Sibert Medal honors the author(s) and illustrator(s) of the most distinguished informational book published during the preceding year.
(Laura Ingalls) Wilder Award
The Wilder Medal honors an author or illustrator whose books, published in the United States, have made, over a period of years, a substantial and lasting contribution to literature for children.
The Coretta Scott King Book Awards are given annually to outstanding African American authors and illustrators of books for children and young adults that demonstrate an appreciation of African American culture and universal human values. The award commemorates the life and work of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and honors his wife, Mrs. Coretta Scott King, for her courage and determination to continue the work for peace and world brotherhood.
1. Pre-writing: This is the planning phase of the writing process, when students brainstorm, research, gather and outline ideas, often using diagrams for mapping out their thoughts. Audience and purpose should be considered at this point, and for the older students, a working thesis statement needs to be started.
2. Drafting: Students create their initial composition by writing down all their ideas in an organized way to convey a particular idea or present an argument. Audience and purpose need to be finalized.
3. Revising: Students review, modify, and reorganize their work by rearranging, adding, or deleting content, and by making the tone, style, and content appropriate for the intended audience. The goal of this phase of the writing process is to improve the draft.
4. Editing: At this point in the writing process, writers proofread and correct errors in grammar and mechanics, and edit to improve style and clarity. Having another writer's feedback in this stage is helpful.
5. Publishing: In this last step of the writing process, the final writing is shared with the group. Sharing can be accomplished in a variety of ways, and with the help of computers, it can even be printed or published online.
Scribbling looks like random assortment of marks on a child's paper. Sometimes the marks are large, circular, and random, and resemble drawing. Although the marks do not resemble print, they are significant because the young writer uses them to show ideas.
Letter-like forms emerge, sometimes randomly placed, and are interspersed with numbers. The children can tell about their own drawings or writings. In this stage, spacing is rarely present.
Strings of Letters
In the strings-of-letters phase, students write some legible letters that tell us they know more about writing. Students are developing awareness of the sound-to-symbol relationship, although they are not matching most sounds. Students usually write in capital letters and have not yet begun spacing.
Beginning Sounds Emerge
At this stage, students begin to see the differences between a letter and a word, but they may not use spacing between words. Their message makes sense and matches the picture, especially when they choose the topic.
Consonants Represent Words
Students begin to leave spaces between their words and may often mix upper- and lowercase letters in their writing. They begin using punctuation and usually write sentences that tell ideas.
Initial, Middle, and Final Sounds
Students in this phase may spell correctly some sight words, siblings' names, and environmental print, but other words are spelled the way they sounds. Children easily hear sounds in words, and their writing is very readable.
This writing is readable and approaches conventional spelling. The students' writing is interspersed with words that are in standard form and have standard letter patterns.
Students in this phase can spell most words correctly and are developing an understanding of root words, compound words, and contractions. This understanding helps students spell similar words.
The final step of integrating standards into the curriculum consists of implementing the curriculum in the classroom and continued monitoring, reflection, and evaluation to improve it. Teachers are responsible for implementing the curriculum as it evolves and determining if it is having the desired effect on student learning. In their daily classroom activities, teachers keep data to monitor student progress and evaluate student performance. They take care to use a variety of assessment tools that are performance based instead of relying on standardized tests. Along with the curriculum committee, teachers use ongoing reflection to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the curriculum and to make needed changes. Evaluation can include the entire curriculum framework, the curriculum-planning model, and the teaching strategies used in the classroom. The ongoing goal is to improve the curriculum and raise student achievement.
Efforts to develop a curriculum framework that is built around standards and district learning goals, to develop quality curriculum based on that framework, and to empower stakeholders to carry out the activities to the best of their ability does not ensure that learning will take place. Attention also has to be given to the process of implementing the curriculum as it evolves and determining if it is having the desired effect on student learning. Changes to the framework, curriculum, and strategies used should be made if the desired results are not being achieved. Only if students are meeting performance standards is true education taking place.
The writing of students whose lowercase letters are as large as the uppercase letters or their "descending" letters don't drop below the line is difficult to read. Our OT's refer to this as "letter-size differentiation". Students need to be taught that tall letters are "tall" and reach the top line (e.g. b, d, f, h, k), small letters are "small" and are printed in the middle of the line (e.g. a, c, e) and descending letters drop below the bottom line (e.g. p, g). To help cue students into the correct formation of the letters, having them practice writing letters on highlighted paper and/or using the highlighted paper for writing assignments can be beneficial.
Students who are not forming letters correctly will need re-teaching of the correct stroke sequence. Using multi-sensory strategies such as writing letters in sand or shaving cream will help. Writing letters in the air prior to writing on the paper is a great strategy because it involves whole body movements (this is known as "air writing"). For a more structured program, the Handwriting Without Tears is a program which is highly respected and has proven effective in improving handwriting. In general, students need practice in writing the letters correctly. This will involve direct supervision when practicing writing as we do not want them practicing incorrect strokes (remember: only perfect practice makes perfect). It will take repeated practice writing letters correctly to reverse an old habit.
Handwriting practice worksheets also provided the extra practice needed when learning correct letter formation. These handwriting practice worksheets are available in my TpT store. I like to print a color copy and then lamintate the pages (I use the heavier laminating sheets) so that they can be used over and over again
Portfolios are a form of alternative/authentic assessment in which a student's progress is measured over a period of time in various language learning contexts. Portfolios can include evidence of specific skills and other items at one particular time and language performance and progress over time, under different conditions, in all four modalities (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) or all three communication modes (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational). Using a combination of testing instruments lends validity and reliability to the portfolio.
Portfolio assessment is closely linked to instruction, which has two educational benefits. First, linking assessment to instruction means that you are sure that you are measuring what you have taught. Second, portfolios reveal any weaknesses in instructional practices. For example, if the purpose of the portfolio is linked to making progress toward all areas of the National Standards, and, at the end of the marking period, there are no works related to oral communication in the portfolio, the teacher may decide to incorporate more oral communications work into the curriculum. This is a way of providing for systemic validity.
Portfolio assessment is by nature incorporated fully into instruction: there is no time lost on assessment. Assessment is a true learning experience, and not external to the learning process.
Student assessment portfolios promote positive student involvement. As students create their portfolios, they are actively involved in and reflecting on their own learning. Increased metacognition has a positive impact on a student's self-confidence, facilitates student use of learning strategies, and increases the student's ability to assess and revise work. Student motivation to continue studying and succeeding in language learning tends to grow in such an environment.
Portfolios offer the teacher and student an in-depth knowledge of the student as a learner. This means that the teacher can individualize instruction for the student. Weak areas can be strengthened and areas of mastery built upon. Learners are involved in this process of tracking their learning and can take control of their learning.
Using portfolios introduces students to an evaluation format with which they may need to become familiar as more schools and districts adopt portfolio assessment.
Using assessment portfolios gives the teacher opportunities to involve parents in their children's language learning. Parental involvement is an important factor in educational success.
remembering: define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state
understanding: classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase
applying: choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write
analyzing: appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test
evaluating: appraise, argue, justify, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate
creating: assemble, construct, create, design, develop formulate, write
Readers Theater is readers reading a script adapted from literature, and the audience picturing the action from hearing the script being read aloud. It requires no sets, costumes, props, or memorized lines. Instead of acting out literature as in a play, the performer's goal is to read a script aloud effectively, enabling the audience to visualize the action. Performers bring the text alive by using voice, facial expressions, and some gestures
Benefits of Using Readers Theater in the Classroom or Library?
Readers Theater helps to....
develop fluency through repeated exposure to text.
integrate reading, writing, speaking, listening in an authentic context.
increase reading motivation.
create confidence and improve the self-image of students.
provide a real purpose for reading.
provide opportunities for cooperative learning.
ENGINEERING With respect to right-handed Cartesian coordinates, let a=[2, 1, 0], b=[-3, 2, 0], c=[1, 4, -2], and d=[5, -1, 3]. Showing details, find: 3c x 5d, 15d x c, 15d*c, 15c*d