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America Claims an Empire
Terms in this set (39)
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
Europe and Imperialists wanted to expand to Africa and Asia. Japan also competed for land in China, hoping to bolster industrialization.
3 Factors that fueled American Imperialism
1. Desire for military strength
2. Thirst for new markets
3. Belief in cultural superiority
Alfred T. Mahan
U.S. Navy captain who urged government officials to build up American naval in order to compete with other powerful nations. Wrote "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History"
Technology allowed Americans to produce more than they needed. Imperialists viewed foreign trade as the solution.
a belief that free-market competition would lead to the survival of the fittest
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; Purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. It was known as "Seward's Folly".
The U.S. takes Hawaii
In the mid 19th century, American owned sugar plantations account for 3/4 of the island's wealth. Plantation owners imported Portuguese, Chinese and Japanese laborers. Hawaiian imported sugar was duty-free.
McKinley Tariff of 1890
In 1890, this tariff raised the tax on foreign products to a peacetime high of 48 percent. Sugar plantation owners called for the U.S. to annex Hawaii so they wouldn't have to pay duties.
U.S. naval base in Hawaii that became a refueling station for American ships.
The Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests.
Stanford B. Dole
Took over as president of Hawaii after queen was imprisoned.
American interest in Cuba
Cuba is only 90 miles from the U.S. Many Americans had businesses in Cuba for things such as sugar and tobacco. Many people wanted to help Cuba fight for its independence from Spain.
Cuban poet and journalist who organized a guerilla revolution against Spain in 1895. "Cuba Libre" was his battle cry. He sought US support and intervention. Today, he is a national Cuban hero.
General sent by Spain to stop Cuban revolt. He was referred to as the "Butcher" because of harsh tactics "concentration camps, shooting civilian, ect.)
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers. (a.k.a. "Clickbait") Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer published exaggerated accounts of Weyler.
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley and was used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
U.S. Battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor in 1898. Spain was framed by Yellow Journalism, however it was most likely a mechanical accident. The incident was a catalyst for the Spanish American War
President McKinley declared war on Spain on April 20, 1898. The legislationE promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war.
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the the Philippines, during the Spanish-American War.
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble. Cuba became a U.S. protectorate.
A country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power.
leader of Philippine Nationalists; said the US promised independence but it never came; rebelled but lost; US promised would "prepare them for self-rule"
Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches
A militant leader who commanded a fleet of well-armed American fleets, and brought a letter to Japan demanding them to open its ports to diplomatic & commercial exchange.
Treaty of Paris
Treaty that ended the Spanish American war. Provided that Cuba be free from Spain. The actual fighting only lasted 15 weeks.
U.S. interest in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico is important for the U.S.'s presence in the Caribbean and to protect the Panama Canal.
Ended military rule in Puerto Rico and set up a civil government. It gave the U.S. the power to appoint Puerto Rico's governor but Puerto Ricans could elect members of the legislation's lower house.
U.S. interest in China
U.S. sees China as potential market and investment opportunities. U.S. feared that China would be carved into colonies by the European countries and Japan and that the U.S. would get shut out.
John Hay, Open Door Policy
Secretary of State John Hay asked each nation with "sphere of influence" in China to allow other nations to trade freely and equally in its sphere. Ended with Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China. It was started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
A ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to "help" countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Wilson's Missionary Diplomacy
US had right to deny and Latin American governments it viewed was oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to US interests.
Francisco "Pancho" Villa and Emiliano Zapata
Opposed Carranza's provisional government. In January 1916, Villa invited American engineers to operate mines in Mexico. Villa shot the engineers and killed 17 Americans.
Josh J. Pershing
The American public wanted revenge on Villa. Wilson ordered Brigadier General Josh J. Pershing and 15,000 soldiers to capture Villa.
3 Beliefs about U.S. Industrial Capitalist Economy
1. Growth depends on exports
2. The U.S. has a right to intervene to keep foreign markets open
3. The closing of an area to American products, citizens or ideas threatened U.S. survival
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