John L. O'Sullivan and Manifest Destiny
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American columnist and editor made famous for introducing the concept of "Manifest Destiny" in an article in 1845. O'Sullivan in supporting the annexation of Texas argued that the U.S. had a divine or ordained right and responsibility to develop the western frontier and to spread American ideals of democracy to the uncivilized or undeveloped regions of the continent and the world.
In the late 1830's, Texas, at the time belonging to Mexico, was populated by Anglo immigrants and Tejanos. At the alamo mission in San Antonio in 1836, the anglos and Tejanos rebelled against the tightening control of General Antonio López. Greatly outnumbered, the Texans made an unsuccessful attempt at revolt. This became their rallying cry during Texas' war for independence
This began in 1848 when James Marshall discovered gold on his land in Coloma. It officially lasted from 1848 to 1855 and caused the immigration and emigration of about 300,000 to California, about half of which took overland routes from the east. The people are gold rushers that made the move in 1849.
PlantersThese people were usually small scale farmers living comfortably. The minority that were large scale, wealthy attempted to model genteel sophistication, with social events and diversions constituting the excitement of the domestic lives of plantation women. Often, the rich displayed an obsession with making money, and saw no humanity in their slaves.Denmark VeseyBorn a slave, he bought his own freedom and became a religious leader in the black community. Led a slave rebellion in 1822 which bothered federal interference with the slave society.Nat TurnerHe was an American slave who led an effective slave rebellion in Virginia during August 1831 freeing slaves and killing the white people they found. Although the rebellion was effective, he was captured and executed November 11, 1831 in Virginia, and it stiffened pro-slavery. The oppressive legislature prohibited education, movements and assembly of slaves.Oregon TreatyThis was a treaty between the U.S. and Great Britain which settled the boundary of the Oregon Territory at latitude 54°40. The treaty gave the U.S. control of present day Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming and Montana.War with MexicoAlso referred to as "Mr. Polk's War", this war was fought due to the annexation of Texas sparking an expansionist desire in America. Polk desired to acquire a tract of land leading all the way to the Pacific, and during awkward and tense negotiations between the troops, an american cavalry unit was ambushed. This event officially sparked the war.Wilmot ProvisoDavid Wilmot, Pennsylvanian democrat, proposed an amendment in August 1846 that there should be no slavery in territories gained from Mexico.The bill was never passed, but it began a change on the debate of slavery.Free Soil PartyThis was a very short lived political party which was formed out of Republican ideology. The party's goal was to oppose slavery in the western lands and argued that working with free men was better economically and morally. They brought northern beliefs of liberty, equality and opportunity into politics again.Pres. Zachary TaylorHe won the presidency in the elections of 1848, and urged settlers to apply for admission into the union, causing a huge debate over the fate of the new territories in regards to slavery. This in turn sparked a huge debate and inability to compromise within the nation on the subject of slavery.Fugitive Slave ActThis gave slavery a legal protection by the federal government; it became a federal crime to help runaway slaves, and escaped slaves could still be arrested even in a free state. It created problems in the government because this was a pro-slavery act and it was a violation of basic American rights.Harriett Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's CabinThis anti- slavery book was published in 1852. The novel was about the agonies faced by slave families and how a mother dashed to freedom with her children across the frozen Ohio River. The book exposed Northern racism as the slave holder in the story was a New Englander. The characters, Eliza, Little Eva, Simon Legree and Uncle Tom, became symbols of the slavery era and the Civil War. As this was an anti-slavery novel from the North, the South wrote proslavery books to rebuttal the bookUnderground Railroad and Harriet TubmanThis was a loose illegal network of transporting runaway slaves to the free north. The Network was built up of both black and white abolitionists, and helped thousands of slaves escape. She was an escapee who continually helped slaves escape via the Underground Railroad.Pres. Franklin PierceHe was a Democrat from New Hampshire, who won the 1852 election with an attitude of defending everyone's rights in order to maintain unity, and strongly supported the Compromise of 1850. He was disliked by many northerners for his support of the compromise and his vigorous enforcement of it. Every move he made was met with sectional conflict.Kansas-Nebraska Act and Bleeding KansasIntroduced by Stephen Douglas in 1854, Kansas and Nebraska entered as popular sovereignty states (people had the right to decide their own laws by voting), ended the Missouri Compromise and allowed slavery. The following event was when pro-slavery forces from Missouri crossed into Kansas and killed anti-slavery settlers.The Republican PartyThe Northerners wrath in 1854 against slavery created a meeting held by anti-slavery Whigs and Democrats, Free-Soilers and other reformers in the old Northwest through Summer and Fall. They met to form the new Party which was dedicated to keep slavery out of territories. As the Whigs faded, the party started to take over and was very popular in the North. They appealed to the people interested in economic development of the West and believed the South was not achieving economic independence by seizing opportunities the country had to offer.American Party of the Know NothingsA Republican movement which believed in a stop of immigration of European and Catholics into the United States. During the temperance movement this party found huge success, people believed it helped ease issues with liquor and other evils. The party though failed in the face of slavery as it's northern and southern wings split apart.Pres. James Buchanan*name* of Pennsylvania, who had for the past four years been ambassador to Britain before his election in 1856, was selected as nominee for the Democrats due to his lack of involvement in territorial controversies. They avoided well-known leaders. His success was owed to Southern support, and he is commonly referred to as "a northern man with southern principles".Dred Scott DecisionDred Scott, a slave from Missouri sued his owner for his freedom claiming that the northern part of the Louisiana Territory had become free land because of the Missouri Compromise, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared that Scott was not a citizen so he had no right to sue for freedom.Pres. Abraham LincolnRepublican candidate of the 1860 election and the 16th president. He was successful in the north with his anti-slavery warnings and despised in the South. He lead the country during the Civil War, was able to emancipate and free slaves, and to reintegrate the south with the rest of the nation."House Divided" speechA speech made by Abraham Lincoln in 1858 as he announced his campaign for the U.S. Senate. It was against the Slave Power, and how slavery was tearing the nation apart and controlling the nation completely.Confederate States of America (CSA) and Jefferson DavisSouth Carolina passed secession order; by February 1861 more southern states joined the secession, forming the Confederate States of America to keep southern ways. *Name* was elected as their president, and port ownership became a rising problem between Lincoln and he.Fort SumterA fort in South Carolina which was still under Union control during the secession of the south, which was attacked after Lincoln notified the state that he was going to resupply it. Not wanting to adhere to Lincoln's commands, the confederate army attacked the fort. The battle is regarded as beginning of the Civil War.Bull RunThe first battle of the Civil War,the battle took place on Juli 21, 1861 near Manassas Junction, Virginia. It is named for the stream that ran nearby the battle site. The Confederates held their ground and forced the Union troops to retreat, giving them a victory. This victory foreshadowed the coming battles and the South's refusal to back down, increasing morale in the South, while in the North, the Union began to mobilize more troops.Gen. George B. McClellanGiven command by Abraham Lincoln, he was a union leader that proved to be better at organizing and preparing his troops than actually fighting. McClellan failed to move his troops successfully to Richmond, losing that battle. Lincoln fired him but eventually brought him back to continue his work.Anaconda Planthis, which was proposed by the General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, was the blockade of Southern ports and the eventual capture of the Mississippi River to split the South in two.The Monitor and MerrimackTwo ironclad warships which fought off the Virginia coast. The first belonged to the Union and the second was the union's, but was seized by the confederacy. The battle of the two ships is regarded as a transformation of naval warfare.Ulysses S. GrantThe Union commander that was able to capture Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in ten days, demanding unconditional surrender. These forts opened two direct routes into the Confederacy. He moved on to fight the battle of Shiloh, forcing the confederates to withdraw after ten hours.Robert E. LeePut in command by Jefferson Davis, he was an aristocratic Virginian, originally opposed to secession but became a confederate general for his state. He did well in many battles but was defeated at Antietam and eventually surrendered at Appomattox Court House to Ulysses S. Grant.Battle of AntietamThe Battle was fought during the U.S Civil War. General Robert E. Lee's army of Northern Virginia fought against Union army of the Potomac commanded by McClellan. Lee was defeated by McClellan and Lincoln brought forth plans of emancipation.greenbacksThe form of currency used by the Union during the Civil War. The change from many forms of currency to a single form during a time of economic hardship sparked the economy and industry of the north during the war.writs of habeas corpusDuring the war, Lincoln suspended these for everyone living between Washington D.C. and Philadelphia in order to ensure the loyalty of Maryland, which surrounded the capital. He did this repeatedly throughout the war, allowing people to be arrested on suspicion, expanding presidential powers during times of war.VicksburgGeneral Ulysses S.Grant led Union forces in the Battle, destroying the city and gaining complete control of the Mississippi River. The Union aimed to separate the Confederacy into two, which crushed confederates' hopes for independence.GettysburgRobert E. Lee led Confederate forces to Pennsylvania from July 1st to the 3rd in 1863 to distract the Union armies (Gen. Meade's army of Potomac) from invading Virginia. The battle concluded with Robert E. Lee withdrawing on July 4th and the largest number of casualties of the entire war. President Davis and General George G. Meade stopped confederate invasion. On July 4th, the end of the battle, also marked the end of large scale Confederate movements in the North.CopperheadsAlso known as Peace Democrats, these were northern Democrats who were opposed to the Civil War. They were outraged at the high taxes, inflation, death tolls, emancipation, and war in general. They opposed Lincoln and compared him to a king or dictator. They were also believed to be involved with the confederacy and were betraying the Union.New York City Draft RiotsIn July of 1863, these against the drafting and commutation system which allowed the rich to avoid being drafted, causing poor immigrants to feel they were being discriminated against. The working class also feared the possible influx of black labor that might put them out of work. The people chanted "Down with the rich", robbing wealthy homes and stores, but mainly attacking blacks, going on for three days until army units were able to end the riots.Appomattox Court HouseIn 1865, Robert E. Lee was greatly outnumbered by Grant's army. Lee surrendered at this place which led to the collapse of the confederacy, Grant allowed the confederates to return home after the surrender.John Wilkes Booth and Lincoln's AssassinationThis man was a well known stage actor and Southern sympathizer who shot and killed Lincoln April 14, 1865 to revive the Confederate cause. Lincoln was killed close to the end of the Civil War. He was also the first American President to be assassinated.ReconstructionThe process of rebuilding the nation (north and south) after the Civil War. This involved reviving the nation economically, rebuilding southern governments, freeing the slaves, and reintegrating the south back into the Union.Lincoln's 10% PlanLincoln replaced the majority rule with the "loyal rule" in which he pardoned all southerners except for officers, and allowed a state to be recognized once again by the US after ten percent of the voting population had taken an oath to the USA. This created weak loyal assemblies, or "Lincoln governments".Wade-Davis BillIn July of 1864, this bill, named after Benjamin Wade and Henry W. Davis, explained that southern states can only re enter the Union if most white male citizens took part of a new government, a loyalty oath was taken, and that all officers of higher ranking were not looked at as citizens.Freedmen's BureauA bureau that was to bring social uplift and relief to the south after the war. It created schools and colleges, supplied medicine and food, and offered employment opportunities. This was generally for freed slaves and was frowned upon by whites. It did though help many displaced blacks and whites reintegrate."40 Acres and a Mule"The ex-slaves felt entitled to forty acres of land and a mule, feeling that without this it would be impossible for them to succeed. President Johnson revoked the land distribution, returning the land to its original owners. 40 Acres and a Mule can be described almost like a rallying cry for freedmen.Pres. Andrew JohnsonFrom Tennessee, originally vice president, but took president position when Lincoln was assassinated. He set up a pardon policy allowing certain groups of people from the south to become citizens and rejoin the nation. Slavery was being abolished, but Johnson established other rules/laws to limit their new freedom. Johnson proved to be unsuccessful and barely kept his presidential position when codesA method of socially dealing with freed slaves throughout the south. The codes restricted the rights of these freed men and did things like, keep freed blacks bound to work contracts, gave them curfews and forced them to carry passes. The real goal of the codes was to keep blacks under the power of the whites.Congressional ReconstructionCongressional Reconstruction consisted of a plan of Reconstruction that was more harsh than previous plans against the South, caused by dissatisfaction with Johnson's decisions. They aimed to help integrate freedmen into society while taking power from the previous planter class of the South.14th AmendmentPassed in 1868, after slavery was abolished, the fourteenth amendment defined citizenship for a freeman born in the U.S. It disallowed states to take away the basic rights and privileges of the people.Tenure of Office Act and impeachmentThe Tenure of Office Act was a result of the battle for reconstruction between President Johnson and Congress. The act allowed congress the power to control appointments in the president's cabinet, Johnson in response removed southern military officers that worked with congress and strengthened his agenda. He was then impeached, meaning removed from office due to federal crimes, namely his attempt to remove Secretary of War Staton.Pres. Ulysses S. GrantElected in the 1868 presidential election, Ulysses S. Grant (Republican) won against Horatio Seymour (Democrat). He supported Congressional Reconstruction and black suffrage. He was a famous Union war hero as well, and is said to have waved the "bloody shirt" showing that he risked his life in the Civil War. This won him vast popularity among the newly freed blacks. As president he was almost passive in the administration of Reconstruction.carpetbaggers and scalawagsCertain white northerners who migrated to the south were known as 'carpetbaggers' because they sneakily and greedily took chances to better themselves; they got the largest share of republican offices, and often took advantage of others. While scalawags, usually Yeoman farmers, non-slave owners, or mountain men, worked/sided with republicans to improve their education and opportunities.Ku Klux KlanThe Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacy force created by Confederate veterans from Tennessee after the Civil War and during the Reconstruction of the South. They advertised white nationalism and anti-immigration. They wore white hats, robes and masks. They also attacked at night so they were not recognizable. Both precautions were taken to prevent their identities of being discovered. They resisted the Republican Party's Reconstruction Era and attacked republican blacks and whites, and freedman and their allies. The Ku Klux Klan wanted to suppress the blacks and run the Republicans out of office."redemption"The process by which the south defeated Republicans and restored their own Democratic unity, thus marking an end to the reconstruction era. The process included restoring former governments and creating state laws that appealed to them, such as black codes and strengthening of the planter class.Compromise of 1877After a nation-dividing dispute over the narrow elections between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel J. Tilden in 1876, this compromise resolved a major dispute between Republicans and Democrats (north and south) that had kept a proper election from taking place. The compromise was a hotel deal that allowed Hayes to attain presidency in return for federally funded internal improvements in the South, as well as the removal of Union troops in the South. The compromise marks the end of Reconstruction.