decreased production, filtration, decreased renal clearance of drugs, unable to conserve sodium, and decreased bladder capacity.
Lab values for urine
PH 4.6 - 8.0, specific gravity 1.010 - 1.025, protein 0-18mg/dl, RBC0-4hpf, WBC0-5, serum creatinine0.6-1.5, BUN 8-25.
invasive kidney procedures
renal biopsy, IVP, angiography, cystoscopy.
NI for angiography
NPO 4-8hrs. before, bedrest of 12hrs. after, monitor for bleeding @ injection site.
cystitis ( UTI)
inflammation of the bladder. more common in females. common bacteria that causes it is E-coli, or yeast.
diagnostic test for UTI
midstream urine test.
medications for UTI
bactrim unless pt. has sulfa allergy, then Cipro. Monural for yeast, and pyridium.
non opioid analgesic, turns urine orange/red color, will stain skin and clothes.
bacterial infection of renal pelvis, caused by backflow, trauma, E-coli most common cause. Urine is cloudy, bloody, or has mucos or pus.
treatment for pyelonephritis
push fluids, daily wt., pain relief, light diet @ first then high cal, high protein.
strepp infection, can lead to CHF, and pulmonary edema. inflammation of the glomerulus.
medications for acute glomerulonephritis
penicillin, lasix, and imuran.
slower progression, can take up to 30 yrs. for signs of renal insufficiency. Meds. are the same as acute, high carb, low sodium diet.
complications of CRF
insomnia, anemia, GI bleed, hyperkalemia, hypermagnisemia, hypervolemia, hypovolemia, HTN, hypocalcemia, and infection.
accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the blood caused by kidneys inability to filter out these waste products. may occur from CRF or ARF.
S/S of uremic syndrome
oliguria, presence of protein, RBC's, casts in the urine, Increased levels of uric acid, potassium, and magnesium. hypotension, hypertension, and changes in LOC.
NI for uremic syndrome
monitor vitals, serum electrolytes, I & O's for oliguria, limited sodium, potassium, and nitrogen diet.
process of cleansing the pts. blood. removes by products such as urea, creatinine, and uric acid. removes excess fluids and maintains the buffer system of the body. maintains electrolyte levels of the body.
complications of hemodialysis
air embolus, disequilibrium syndrome, and dialysis encephalopathy.
works on the principles of osmosis, diffusion, and ultrafication. PD occurs via the transfer of fluid and solute from the bloodstream through the peritoneum.
a rubber siliconized catheter that is surgically inserted into the peritonel cavity to allow infusion of dialysis fluid.