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ANS230 Exam 2 (start lect 9. slide 17)
Terms in this set (67)
pack tightly and form more rigid, organized aggregates (i.e. membranes)
bend and pack in a less ordered way, with greater potential for motion
Saturated fatty acid common in plants and animals:
Saturated fatty acid common in animal fat:
Properties due to the carboxyl group?
1. salt formation
alkaline salts, combine with minerals
esterify with glycerol to form triglycerides
Hydrogenation of fats;
adding 2 H atoms to an unsaturated FA to produce a saturated FA.
addition of 2 oxygen atoms to unsaturated fat. Oxygen forms peroxides.
can be inhibited by antioxidants (Vit E)
_____ are to fat as
parent compound of most sterols.
made only by animals. precursor for bile acid
5 phases of lipid digestion:
3.Transport into cells
solubilization of FFA and Glycerol
Breakdown of triglycerides into FFA and monoacylglycerol
3.Transport into cells:
FFA and glycerol moved into the cell and resynthesized into triglycerides
triglycerides are packaged into chylomicrons
Chylomicrons transported into lymph
aid in breakdown of triglycerides into smaller droplets - increasing surface area
hydrolyzes triglycerides into FFA
mono and FFA retain their association with bile and complex with other lipids to form micelles. they are taken into epithelial cells in brush border
____ are transported into the blood by a mechanism distinctly different from that for monosacc. and amino acids
Triglycerides are packaged with other lipid into particles called..
not absorbed. transported via the lymphatic vessels.
Plasma Lipoproteins (4)
-Very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
-Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) 'bad' choles.
-High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) 'good' choles.
conversion of glucose or amino acids into lipids.
Lipogenesis is stimulated by..
splitting of triglycerides in fatty acids and glycerol.
Fatty acids then become Acetyl CoA via beta oxidation and glycerol catabolized to glucose.
Fasting, starving, or high fat meals with few carbs result in...
excessive beta oxidation and ketone body production. acidosis.
Excess of ketone bodies -
cause acidosis (low blood pH) Ketosis.
Amino acids are linked by..
1. Primary (sequence of aa)
2. Secondary (alpha helix & beta pleated)
3. Tertiary (insulin)
4. Quaternary (hemoglobin)
Proteins are classified by...
simple proteins vs. conjugated proteins (has non-aa parts)
Fibrous vs. globular
not an amino acid. major constituent of bile acid. essential for feline health. pancreas makes.
2 exceptions of whole protein absorption in animals
1. Neonates (24-48hr postpartum)
2. Digestive diseases
Amino acid metabolism = ____% of total energy production
Lysine and leucine are...
all other AAs can be either keto or glucogenic.
First limiting amino acid=
present in lowest amount relative to its requirement
Organic - vitamins:
Inorganic - Minerals:
P, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Zn..
lipids for absorption
Cats lack the enzyme...
and do not make...
steroid hormone. produced in kidneys, transported in blood, target tissue in intestines.
part of molecule 'glucose tolerance factor' and required for normal glucose entry into cells. enhances milk production in lactating cows
Rising blood calcium=
thyroid gland secretes calcitonin
Falling blood calcium=
parathyroid glands secrete parathormone.
protect cells from damage from oxidation.
Vit E, Vit C, b-carotene, Vit A, Selenium
Antioxidants function by
-stabilize 'free radicals' by donating electrons
-destroy 'free radicals' by complexing w/ enzyme systems
Unique properties of water;
-water is polar
-water is an excellent solvent
-has high heat capacity
-has high heat of vaporization
-has cohesive and adhesive properties
Mammals excrete nitrogen as..
In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ and oxygen is _____
glucose is OXIDIZED
oxygen is REDUCED
_____ fatty acids bend and pack in a less ordered way
An 18 C fatty acid with no double bonds is called
Essential fatty acid ex
Linoleic AND Linolenic
The rxn by which fatty acids bind to a molecule of glycerol is called
The parent compound of most sterols is...
Bile acids aid in the breakdown of...
The enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides into free fatty acids is called..
Most fatty acids are transported via
Which Vit B is produced as a result of microbial fermentation
Liver Vit A content is typically very high in...
_____ of amino acids results in the formation of an alpha keto acid
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