Logical Fallacies- AP Lang
Terms in this set (14)
This is a conclusion based on the premise that if A happens, then eventually through a series of small steps, through B, C,..., X, Y, Z will happen, too, basically equating A and Z. So, if we don't want Z to occur, A must not be allowed to occur either.
This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, you are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts.
This is a conclusion that assumes that if 'A' occurred after 'B' then 'B' must have caused 'A.'
Circular Reasoning (Begging the Question)
This restates the argument rather than actually proving it.
Either/Or (False Dilemma)
This is a conclusion that oversimplifies the argument by reducing it to only twosides or choices.
This is an attack on the character of a person rather than her/his opinions or arguments.
This is an emotional appeal that speaks to positive (such as patriotism, religion, democracy) ornegative (such as terrorism or fascism) concepts rather than the real issue at hand.
This is a type of ad populum, and boils down to "everybody is doing it, so it must be a good thing to do."
This is a diversionary tactic that avoids the key issues, often by avoiding opposing arguments rather than addressing them.
Faulty Emotional Appeals
The arguer seeks sensational or sentimental reactions and bases their argument on feelings rather than logic.
This move oversimplifies an opponent's viewpoint and then attacks that hollow argument.
This is a very vulnerable type of evidence where someone could argue that the two things are not at all comparable. Advertising companies often use this to appeal to pathos.
Appeal to False Authority
When someone who has no expertise to speak on an issue is cited as an authority.
A statement that is not connected in a logical or clear way to anything said before it. Theconclusion does not follow the fundamental principles of logic. It will feel like there is a step or two missing from their argument.
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