Botany

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Cons of plants on land
-Staying wet
-Keeping the zygote alive
-Moving from place to place
-Ultraviolet radiation is much higher
Plants vs. Animal Cells
-Contain chloroplast and a cell wall
-Plants have a large vacuole
-Only few cells are capable of dividing
-Many cells are dead
Cell Wall
A rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
What are plant cell walls made of?
cellulose ( a chain of sugars)
What is cellulose formed from?
A long string of glucoses
Plasmodesmata
channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells
Meristems
regions of rapidly dividing cells
3 types of plant cells
parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
parenchyma cells
-primary walls that are thin & flexible, -lack secondary walls, -large central vacuole-metabolic functions, synthesizing and storing organic products, least specialized structurally
collenchyma cells
unevenly thickened primary cell walls but lack secondary cell walls
sclerenchyma cells
-Thick secondary cell wall
-Mature cells cannot elongate - usually dead and provide support for plant
PieCeS
Primary
Confusing
Secondary
Chloroplast
make energy from sunlight
Mitochondria
releases energy from sugar
major plant organelles
Nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles
Nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction and cell division
Chloroplast
Converts light energy into glucose in the process of photosynthesis.
Contains chlorophyll giving plants their green color.
Contains 2 membranes.
DNA in a ring.
Mitochondria
Conduct respiration
Separate Dna
Contains 2 membranes
Release energy from sugar
DNA in a ring
Vacuole
A sac inside a cell that acts as a storage area
Regulate cell volume
Endoplasmic Reticulum
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
cellulose vs starch
Cellulose chains are twisted
Starch goes in one direction
Both made of chains of sugar
Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
monocot root
fibrous root
Dicot root
taproot
Root hairs
extensions of epidermal cells, increasing the surface area of the root; increases the plant's ability to absorb water and minerals
Vascular bundle components
Collenchyma strands, phloem, lateral meristem, xylem, vessels (bigger), tracheids (smaller)
monocot stem
scattered vascular bundles
dicot stem
vascular bundles in a ring