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Abnormal Psych -- Exam 1 (Chap 1,2,5)
Terms in this set (135)
a group of emotional (feelings), cognitive (thinking), or behavioral symptoms that cause distress or significant problems
the scientific study of problematic feelings, thoughts, and behaviors associated with mental disorders
behavior that interferes with a person's life, including ability to care for oneself, have good relationships with others, and function well at school or work
people who study mental problems to see how disorders develop and continue and how they can be prevented or treated
about how many adults (worldwide) have had a mental disorder in his/her lifetime
one of four
when are emotions, thoughts, and behaviors considered abnormal?
when they deviate from the norm, interfere with daily functioning, or cause personal distress
an attempt to cast out a spirit possessing an indivdual
the action of cutting a hole in a person's skull to help release a harmful spirit
a Greek physician known as the father of modern medicine.
Who rejected demons and evil spirits as causes of abnormal behavior?
Who believed that abnormal behavior resulted from brain disorders and dysfunctions?
Who recommended treatments for abnormal behavior to restore brain functioning such as special diets, rest, abstinence from alcohol, regular exercise, and celibacy?
places set aside for people with mental disorder from the general population because they were not able to care for themselves.
What did early theoreticians attribute abnormal behavior to?
supernatural causes such as demon possession. fixed by exorcism or trephination
public health model
a prevention approach that focuses on promoting good health and good health practices to avert disease
involves targeting large groups of people, sometimes the entire public, who have not yet developed a mental disorder
what is an example of primary prevention
programs to reduce job discrimination, enhance school curricula, improve housing, teach parenting skills, and provide educational assistance to children
involves addressing emerging problems while they are still manageable and before they become resistant to intervention
what is an example of secondary prevention?
early detection and treatment of college students with potentially damaging drinking problems
involves reducing the severity, duration, and negative effects of a mental disorder after it has occurred
what is an example of tertiary prevention?
various medical and psychological treatments for mental disorders
refers to examining the effect of culture on the way people think, feel, and act. this is important for understanding what causes mental disorders and how to better and more specifically assess and treat mental disorders
a characterization by others of disgrace or reproach based on an individual characteristic
refers to the general disgrace the public confers on people with mental disorder that can result in prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination
refers to disgrace people assign themselves because of public stigma
name two ways stigma can be fought
education and promoting personal contact
refers to the science of promoting mental health and preventing mental disorder through education, early treatment, and public health measures
rests on the assumption that mental states, emotions, and behaviors arise from the brain function and other physical processes.
the genetic composition of a person
an observable characteristic of a person
knowing which genetic and environmental influences impact the development of emotions, cognitions, and behavior
an attempt to identify associations between specific genes and mental disorders
central nervous system
includes the brain and spinal cord and is responsible for processing information from our sensory organs such as eyes and ears and prompting our body into action
peripheral nervous system
helps control muscles and voluntary movement, regulates the cardiovascular and endocrine (hormone) systems, assists with digestion, and adjusts body temperature.
assists with the processing of information; regulation of mood, behaviors and thought processes
assists with the regulation of arousal, mood, behavior, and sleep
influences novelty-seeking, sociability, pleasure, motivation, coordination, and motor movement
covers much of each hemisphere and is largely responsible for consciousness, memory, attention, and other higher-order areas of human functioning
in charge of movement, planning and organization, inhibiting behavior of responses, and decision making
associated with touch
associated with hearing and memory
associated with vision
coordinates muscle movement and balance
involved with emotion and aggression
associated with breathing and blood circulation
associated with sleep and arousal
reticular activating system
associated with arousal and stress
associated with memory and learning
associated with posture and motor movement
associated with basic biological needs like hunger, thirst and body temperature
a genetic approach to mental disorder focuses on ____________ and ____________________________
heritability, molecular genetics
basic units of the nervous system and communicate using chemical messengers or neurotransmitters
what is important for understanding many components of major mental disorders, but cannot explain all aspects of the disorders
the biological model
the portion of the personality that is present at birth
what is the purpose of the id?
to seek immediate gratification and discharge tension as soon as possible
what is the id's guiding principle?
what are the tasks of the id?
attain gratification of wants, needs, and impulses
manufacturing a fantasy or mental image of whatever lessens the tension
an organized, rational system that uses higher-order thinking processes to obtain gratification
the need to delay gratification of impulses to meet environmental demands.
involves learning, perception, memory, planning, judgement, and other higher-order thinking processes to plan a workable strategy
develops in early childhood and represents societal ideals and values conveyed by parents through rewards and punishments
what is the role of the superego?
block unacceptable id impulses, pressure the ego to pursue morality rather than expediency, and generate strivings toward perfection
a basic ego defense that occurs when a person banishes from consciousness threatening feelings, thoughts, or impulses,
involves returning to a stage that previously gave a person much gratification
give an example of regression
a middle-aged man under stress who begins to act as if he were a teenager
give an example of repression
having a strong sexual desire for a stranger
occurs when an unconscious impulse is consciously expressed by its behavioral opposite
give an example of reaction formation
"I love you" is expressed as "I hate you," a phenomenon common among tweens who like someone but are afraid of rejection
occurs when unconscious feelings are attributed to another person
give an example of projection
a spouse who feels guilty about cheating on her husband may accuse her husband of infidelity
refusing to accept or acknowledge reality
expressing one's unacceptable feelings onto a different object or person than the one that is truly the target of the feelings
imagining some unattainable desire
modeling another person's behavior or preferences to be more like them
providing an in-depth intellectual analysis of a traumatic or other situation to distance oneself from its emotional content
emphasizing strength in one area to balance a perceived weakness in other areas
attributing one's own unacceptable motives or impulses to another person
developing a specific reason for an action, such as justifying why one did not purchase a particular car
transforming emotions or sexual or aggressive material into more acceptable forms such as dancing or athletic or creative activity
reversing an unacceptable behavior or thought using extreme means
asking a client to say whatever comes to mind during the session, without exercising censorship or restraint
what actually happens in a dream
a dreams symbolic or unconscious meaning
what is a major weakness of the psychodynamic perspective?
the relative lack of research support for its major assumptions
emphasizes human growth, choice, and responisbilty
conditional postive regard
refers tp an environment in which others set the conditions or standards for one's life
unconditional positive regard
refers to an environment in which a person is fully accepted as she is and allowed to pursue her own desires and goals
what does the humanistic model focus on?
how humans can make choices that influence their environment and how they can take responsibility for their actions
based on the assumption that one's behavior is determined by perceptions pf herself and others
who outlined a series of human needs?
who developed client-centered therapy, which focuses on unconditional positive regard, or complete acceptance of a client, and empathy?
Who's existential approach emphasized authenticity, or how closely one adheres tone's personality, as well as anxiety about alienation from others
what does the humanistic perspective rely on?
qualitative assessment of an individual's perceptions of himself and the world as well as non directive therapy
what are some strengths of the humanistic perspective?
personal responsibility for recover and process variables important for treatment
what are some weaknesses of the humanistic perspective?
relative lack of research support and poor utility for certain groups of people
developed in reaction to psychodynamic theory that dominated psychology in the early 20th century
essentially refers to learning by association and was studied initially by Ivan Pavlov
based on the principle that behavior followed by positive or pleasurable consequences will likely be repeated, but behavior followed by negative consequences, such as punishment, will not likely be repeated
arose from the behavioral perspective because people often behave in ways that have little to do with reinforcement
beliefs or expectations that represent a network of accumulated knowledge
refers to irrational, inaccurate thoughts people have about environmental events
a theory of fear development that combines classical with operant conditioning with internal states such as driving or motivating factors
refers to a large collection of treatments techniques to change patters of thinking and behaving that contribute to a person's problems
a perspective of abnormal behavior that focuses on influences that other people, social institutions, and social forces exert on a person's mental health
family systems perspective
assumes that each family has its own rules and organizational structure, or hierarchy of authority and decision making
the degree to which family interactions are marked by emotional over involvement, hostility, and criticism
what is a strength of the sociocultural perspective?
its focus on social and environmental factors and family on mental health
what is a limitation of the sociocultural perspective?
the lack of evidence that advert environments cause mental disorders
largely cognitive or "thinking" concept that refers to concerns about possible future threat
an emotional state that occurs as a threatening event draws close
what are anxiety's three key parts?
physical feelings, thoughts, and behaviors
an intense emotional state that occurs as a threat is imminent or actually occurring
involves a period of time, usually several minutes, in which a person experiences intense feelings of fear, apprehension that something terrible will happen, and physical symptoms
refers to anxiety about being in places where panic symptoms may occur, especially places where escape might be difficult
ongoing and bizarre ritualistic acts performed after an obsession to reduce arousal
ongoing and bizarre ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that a person cannot control
body dysmorphic disorder
a disorder marked by excessive preoccupation with some perceived body flaw
regular unexpected panic attacks and worry about the consequences of these attacks
acute stress disorder
refers to short-term anxiety and dissociative symptoms following a trauma
a risk factor for anxiety-related disorders involving withdrawal from things that are unfamiliar or new
negative thought patterns
a cognitive distortion involving the assumption that terrible but incorrect sequences will result from an event
a cognitive distortion involving the assumption that one's physical feelings reflect how things really are
a risk factor for OCD involving a belief that thinking something is the same as doing it
a person's ability to think about a past anxiety-provoking event without significant anxiety
a risk factor for anxiety-related disorders involving fear of the potential dangerousness of one's physical symptoms
A treatment technique that involves educating a person about the physical, cognitive, and behavioral components of anxiety and how these components occur in sequence for that person.
somatic control exercises
treatment techniques to help people with anxiety-related disorders decrease severity of their aversive physical feelings
a treatment technique for physical anxiety symptoms that may involve having a person tense and release (relax) different muscle groups
A treatment technique for physical anxiety symptoms that involves inhaling slowly and deeply through the nose and exhaling slowly though the mouth.
a treatment technique for cognitive symptoms of anxiety that involves helping a person think more realistically and develop a sense of control over anxious situations
when a person slowly approaches a feared situation while practicing relaxation training and/or cognitive therapy
a therapy technique that emphasizes how a person can accept symptoms but still function in a given situation
what does a psychophysiological assessment of anxiety-related disorders include?
heart rate, muscle tension, sweat gland activity, and other symptoms
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