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APUSH - Ch. 5 - The Problem of Empire - 1763-1776 - Henretta
The Problem of Empire, 1763-1776
Terms in this set (30)
Sugar Act of 1764 (p. 155)
This raised the tax on sugar, while lowering the tax on molasses. It also established new vice-admiralty courts in America to try accused smugglers to cut them off from sypathetic local juries.
vice-admiralty (p. 156)
A maritime tribunal presided over by a royally appointed judge, with no jury.
Stamp Act of 1765 (p. 157)
British Law imposing a tax on all paper used in the colonies. Widespread resistance to the Stamp Act prevented it from taking effect and led to its repeal in 1766.
virtual representation (p. 157)
The idea that the British parliament members virtually represented British colonists by speaking for all instead of just the district they were from
Quartering Act of 1765 (p. 157)
A British law passed by Parliament at the request of General Thomas Gage, the British military commander in America, that required colonial governments to provide barracks and food for British troops.
Stamp Act Congress (p. 158)
A congress of delegates from nine assemblies that met in New York City in October 1765 to protest the loss of American "rights and liberties," especially the right to trail by jury. They challenged the constitutionally of the Stamp and Sugar Acts by declaring that only the colonist' elected representatives could tax them.
Sons of Liberty (p. 158)
Colonists who banded together to protest the Stamp Act and other imperial reforms of the 1760s. The group originated in Boston in 1765 but soon spread to all the colonies.
English common law (p. 159)
The centuries-old body of legal rules and procedures that protected the lives and property of the British monarch's subjects.
natural rights (p. 159)
The rights to life, liberty, and property. According to the English philosopher John Locke in Two Treatises of Government (1690), political authority was not given by God to monarchs. Instead, it derived from social compacts that people made to preserve their natural rights.
Declaratory Act of 1766 (p. 160)
This explicitly reaffirmed the British Parliament's full power and authority to make law and statutes to bind the people of America.
Townshend Act of 1767 (p. 161)
British law that established new duties on paper, paint, glass and tea imported into the colonies. The Townshend duties led to boycotts and heightened tensions between Britain and the American colonies.
nonimportation movement (p. 161)
Boycotts on imported goods from Britain. Had major effect on merchants' economy and pressured Parliament into repealing the Stamp Act.
committees of correspondence (p. 168)
A communications network established among towns in the colonies, and among colonial assemblies, between 1772 and 1773 to provide for rapid dissemination of news about important political developments.
Tea Act of May 1773 (p. 168)
British act that lowered the existing tax on tea and granted exemptions to the East India Company to make their tea cheaper in the colonies and entice boycotting Americans to buy it. Resistance to the Tea Act lead to the passage of the Coercive Acts and imposition of military rule in Massachusetts.
Coercive Acts (p. 168)
Four British Acts of 1774 meant to punish Massachusetts for the destruction of three shiploads of tea. Known in America as the Intolerable Acts, they led to open rebellion in the northern colonies.
Continental Congress (p. 169)
September 1774 gathering of colonial delegates in Philadelphia to discuss the crisis precipitated by the Coercive Acts. The Congress produced a declaration of rights and an agreement to impose a limited boycott of trade with Britain.
Continental Association (p. 171)
An association established in 1774 by the First Continental Congress to enforces the boycott of British goods.
Dunmore's War (p. 175)
A 1774 war led by Virginia's royal governor, the Earl of Dunmore, against the Ohio Shawnees, who had a longstanding claim to Kentucky as a hunting ground. The Shawnees were defeated and Dunmore and his militia forces claimed Kentucky as their own.
Minutemen (p. 175)
"Minutemen" was the nickname given to local militiamen who fought against the British during the Revolutionary War. They were called minutemen because of their supposed ability to be ready for battle at a minute's notice.
Second Continental Congress (p. 176)
Legislative body that governed the United States from May 1775 through the war's duration. It established an army, created its own money, and declared independence once all hope for peaceful reconciliation with Britain was gone.
Declaration of Independence (p. 178)
Came about on July 4th, 1776, declaring American independence. This document stated that America should consist of separate states. Loyalists, anti-independence people, and the British troops all left America as it was now free.
popular sovereignty (p. 179)
the principle that ultimate power lies in the hands of the electorate.
George Grenville (p. 155)
He was responsible for raising money in the colonies. He passed the Currency Act of 1764, Sugar Act of 1764, and tightened customs enforcement so that it could actually be collected.
John Dickinson (p. 159)
He wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" (1768) urged colonists to "remember your ancestors and your posterity" and oppose parliamentary taxes.
Charles Townshend (p. 160)
Chancellor of the Exchequer. Not sympathetic towards America. A member of the Board of Trade, he sought restrictions on the colonial assemblies and strongly supported the Stamp Act. He promised to find a new source of revenue in America.
Lord North (p. 166)
Prime Minister of Britain. He argued that it was foolish to tax British exports to America, he persuaded Parliament to repeal most of the Townshend duties. However, he retained the tax on tea as a symbol of Parliament's supremacy
Samuel Adams (p. 166)
He was an American statesmen, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He also repudiated parliamentary supremacy and claimed equality for the American assemblies within the empire
Lord Dunmore (p. 174)
Appointed to his post in 1771, this person was easily angered and unscrupulous man who clashed repeatedly with the House of Burgesses. He also led a militia against Ohio Shawnees.
Thomas Paine (p. 178)
Author of "Common Sense", this person assaulted the traditional monarchical order in charge-up language. He also argued for American Independence by turning the traditional metaphor of patriarchal authority on its head.
Thomas Jefferson (p. 178)
The Declaration of Independence main author, Jefferson had mobilized resistance to the Coercive Acts with the pamphlet A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). He also justified independence and republicanism to Americans and the world by vilifying King George III of England.
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