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AP Psych Unit 11 (Myers)
Terms in this set (91)
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others using numerical scores
~Ex. The Stanford-Binet IQ Test
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
~Ex. Someone knowing that Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland
Underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test. General Intelligence scores predict performance on various complex tasks, in various jobs, in various countries
~Ex. A person who does well on a verbal test would probably also do well on other tests
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test. Spearman named this common factor the G Factor
-It's used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie a person's total score
~Ex. An example of the output of a simple factor analysis looking at indicators of wealth, with just six variables and two resulting factors
Found that specific mental talents were highly correlated (those who score high in one area will score higher than average in other areas), concluded that all cognitive abilities showed a common core which he labeled 'g' (g factor)
Proposed that intelligence consisted of 7 different primary mental abilities. Those who excelled in one of those 7 clusters generally scored well on the others- evidence of the g factor
Proposed intelligence entails how people solve novel problems (i.e. how to stop a fire from spreading, how to find food during a drought, etc.) But it does NOT correlate with one's skills in evolutionary familiarity situations (i.e. marrying, forming close friendships, navigating without maps, etc.)
-We don't have AN intelligence, but MULTIPLE intelligences
-Devised theory of 8 multiple intelligences: logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic.
-Finds evidence in studies of people with diminished or exceptional abilities. Brain damage, for ex. may destroy one ability but leave others intact. Also Savant syndrome
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
~Ex. Neurodevelopmental disorders, notably autism spectrum disorders, or brain injuries
Devised the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (analytical/academic problem-solving, practical, and creative)
Analytical (academic problem solving) Intelligence
Assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer. Such tests predict school grades reasonably well and vocational success more modestly
Demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
The ability to solve everyday problems through skilled reasoning that relies on tacit knowledge. These skills are used for everyday life, so the skills-set is rather wide open. The skills could include writing, speaking, interacting, motivating, etc.
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
~Ex. Understanding that someone is mad without them telling you, and knowing how to react
4 Emotional Intelligence Components
(created by John Mayer, Peter Salovey, & David Caruso)
~Recognize them in faces, music & stories
~Predict them and how they change and blend
~Know how to express them in varied situations
~Use them to enable adaptive or creative thinking
Caution Against Stretching Emotional Intelligence...
...To include varied traits such as self esteem and optimism, although emotionally intelligent people are self aware
What Has Provided Extreme Examples of the Results of Diminished Emotional Intelligence in People with High General Intelligence?
Brain damage reports
Howard Gardner Said This About Stretching Stretching Intelligence:
"Respect emotional sensitivity, creativity, and motivation as important but separate things. Stretch intelligence to include everything we prize and it will lose its meaning."
Gained access to the brain of Albert Einstein and discovered that a region used for mathematical thinking was 15% wider than the average brain; theorized that either Einstein was born with a gifted brain or that it grew because he used that area of his brain more often
If Intelligence Does Modestly Correlate With Brain Size, the Cause Could Be...?
Differing genes, nutrition, environmental stimulation, some combination of these, or something else (really narrows it down, doesn't it?)
The ability to identify visual similarities and differences quickly and accurately
How fast someone's neurons react; how fast someone acquires and processes information
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
Ex. A child who does as well as the average 8 year old is said to have a mental age of 8. A 19 year old who does as well as said 8 year old is also said to have a mental age of 8
-Differential psychology AKA "London School" of Experimental Psychology
-Contributions: behavioral genetics, maintains that personality & ability depend almost entirely on genetic inheritance; compared identical & fraternal twins, hereditary differences in intellectual ability.
-Interested in link between heredity and intelligence; founder of the eugenics movement
-GENIUS IS INHERITED
-Contributions: general IQ tests, designed test to identify slow learners in need of remediation (Was not applicable in the U.S. because too culture-bound (French))
Working with Binet, he published a test of general mental ability that was loaded with items that required abstract reasoning skills rather than sensory skills
Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (working together)
Developed the first intelligence test to identify children who needed remedial education to identify their "mental age"
-Revised Binet's IQ test and established norms for American children
-Promoted widespread use of intelligence testing
_Helped the US gov develop new tests to evaluate arriving immigrants and WW1 army recruits
-Tested group of young geniuses and followed in a longitudinal study that lasted beyond his own lifetime to show that high IQ does not necessarily lead to wonderful things in life
The widely used American revision (by Terman at Stanford University) of Binet's original intelligence test.
Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
Defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 [thus, IQ = (ma/ca) x 100]. On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
Most Current Intelligence Tests (including the Stanford-Binet) No Longer Compute an IQ, Instead, They...
...Represent the test-taker's performance RELATIVE to the AVERAGE PERFORMANCE OF OTHERS THE SAME AGE. (This average performance is arbitrarily assigned a score of 100, and about 2/3 of test taker fall between 85 and 115)
Tests designed to assess what a person has learned
Tests designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group
Known for his discovery of the Flynn effect, which is the rise in average IQ scores year after year, all over the year
The Flynn Effect
The worldwide phenomenon that shows intelligence test performance has been increasing over the years (The higher IQ scores today
norms must be re-calculated every so often. Compared to the 1930s, people score much higher today. In the 30s, the average would only be 76 using today's scale)
The extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
~Ex. If a person weighs themselves during the course of a day they would expect to see a similar reading
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to (high reliability does not ensure a test's validity)
~Ex. A test of intelligence should measure intelligence and not something else (such as memory)
The extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest
~Ex. A depression scale may lack content validity if it only assesses the affective dimension of depression but fails to take into account the behavioral dimension. An element of subjectivity exists in relation to determining content validity, which requires a degree of agreement about what a particular personality trait such as extraversion represents. A disagreement about a personality trait will prevent the gain of a high content validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior
~Ex. The validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings
To Check a Test's Reliability...
...Researchers retest people. They may use the same test or they may split the test in half and ee whether odd question scores and even question scores agree. If the two scores agree/correlate, then the test is reliable (the higher the correlation, the higher the reliability)
A rule, test; a standard for judgment or evaluation
Graduate Record Examination (GRE)
A standardized test for admission to graduate schools, which is used in a manner similar to the way that the SAT and ACT tests are used for admission to undergraduate colleges and universities. It contains verbal and quantitative sections as well as analytical writing sections
-Large scale comparative study that was conducted as a follow up on a mass testing that the Scottish government conducted in 1932
-Did a longitudinal study and found a +0.66 correlation between people scores from 11 to 80 years old
(Formerly referred to as mental retardation) A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound
A condition of mild to severe intellectual disability and associated physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21
Disabled people were integrated in classrooms with nondisabled students
In psychology, grit is passion and perseverance in the pursuit of long-term goals
Created what is now the most widely used individual intelligence test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), with a version for school age children (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC), and another for preschool children
The symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
~Ex. One way to estimate probabilities is to use empirical data. However, if the histogram of the data shapes like a bell curve, we can use a normal curve to estimate probabilities.
Appropriate Developmental Placement
Suited to each child's talents- promote equity and excellence
-Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic
~Each gene accounts for much less than 1% of intelligence variations
Adopted Children's Intelligence Scores Over Time Become _______ Like Those of Their Biological Parents
Genetic Influences (NOT Environmental ones) Become _____ Apparent as We Accumulate Life Experiences
~Ex. Identical twins similarities will continue or increase into their eighties
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied
J. McVicker Hunt
Observed children in a destitute Iranian orphanage and found that they were underdeveloped; began a program of tutored human enrichment
Will Providing an "enriched" Environment "Give Your CHild a Superior Intellect?"
~Although malnutrition, sensory deprivation, and social isolation can retard normal brain development, there is no environmental recipe for fast-forwarding a norman infant into a genius
-Widely publicized ut now discounted finding that suggested that listening to classical music boosted cognitive ability
Hunt Was a Strong Believer in the Ability of Education to...
...Boost children's chances for success by developing their cognitive and social skills
Individuals believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort (as they learn and grow)
The idea that we have a set amount of an ability that cannot change
Fixed Mindset vs. Growth Mindset
fixed mindset = intelligence is biologically set and unchanging
growth mindset = intelligence is changeable if you learn more
those with growth mindset accomplish more in careers
So Far As G Is Concerned, Men and Women Are the Same Species. Yet, Most People Find Differences More Newsworthy. They Are:
-Math and spatial abilities
Females are better spellers
(refers to various capabilities associated with understanding and expressing oral and written communication) -Females are better at verbal fluency and remembering words
Females have an edge in remembering and locating objects
Females are more sensitive to touch, taste, and odor
Math and Spatial Aptitudes
Males and Females obtained nearly identical average scores on math tests given to *people. In 20 out of 21 countries, females displayed an edge in math computation, but males scored higher in math problem solving
Argued that biological as well as social influences appear to affect gender difference in life priorities, in risk-taking, and in math reasoning and spatial abilities
Urges caution in charting male-female intellectual worlds; feels that it is oversimplified to assert that women have more "verbal ability" and men more "math ability"
Greater Male Variability
Tendency for males' mental ability scores to vary more than females'
The Bell Curve for Whites is Roughly:
The Bell Curve for American Black is Roughly:
The Bell Curve for Hispanics is:
In between IQ 85 and 100
Mentally Disabled IQ is:
70 or lower
High Intelligence IQ is:
135 or higher
A Test May Be Considered Biased if...
It detects not only innate differences in intelligence but also performance differences caused by cultural experiences
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
~Ex. Students who are reminded of negative stereotypes about their race or gender before taking a test perform worse on those tests
How do Gardner's and Sternberg's theories of multiple intelligences differ?
-Gardner: 8 independent intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and naturalist)
-Sternberg: 3 intelligence domains (analytical, creative, and practical)
To what extent intelligence related to brain anatomy and neural processing speed?
Some correlation (about +.33) between brain size and intelligence score.
~Highly educated/ intelligent people exhibit an above average volume of synapses and grey matter
Aptitude test vs. achievement test
AP: designed to predict what you can learn (WAIS= most widely used)
ACH: designed to assess what you have learned
Tests like Aptitude and Achievement must be...
...Standardized to establish a basis. The distribution of test scores formed a normal, bell shaped curve. These tests must also be reliable by yielding consistent scores, and valid (predicting/measuring what they are supposed to). Constant validity is the extent to which a test samples the pertinent behavior, and predictive validity is the extent to which the tes predicts a behavior it is designed to predict.
What does evidence reveal about heredity and environmental influences on intelligence?
Studies of twins, family members, and adoptees together point to a significant hereditary contribution to intelligence scores. Genes contribute the most to intelligence. Yet evidence also points to environmental factors: life experiences can significantly influence intelligence test performance
Achievement tests are to aptitude tests as...
...measurement is to prediction
The neurological basis of intelligence is most dependent on the
Number of synapses between neurons
Tiny spaces between neurons
The purpose of Binet's first intelligence test was to:
Predict how children would do in school
The intelligence quotient compares a child's...
...mental age to their chronological age
Experts would most likely agree that intelligence is a(n)
mental ability to learn from experience
Joni claims that she is intellectually gifted because she "possesses" an IQ of 145. She is most clearly committing the error known as
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