To help secure rights of private property, to preserve and enlarge freedom;
for the end of civil society, being to avoid, and remedy those inconveniences of the state of nature, which necessarily follow from every man's being judge in his own case, by setting up a known authority, to which every one of that society may appeal upon any injury received, or controversy that may arise, and which every one of the society ought to obey;* where-ever any persons are, who have not such an authority to appeal to, for the decision of any difference between them, there those persons are still in the state of nature.
Justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. It ever has been and ever will be pursued until it be obtained, or until liberty be lost in the pursuit. In a society under the forms of which the stronger faction can readily unite and oppress the weaker, anarchy may as truly be said to reign as in a state of nature, where the weaker individual is not secured against the violence of the stronger; and as, in the latter state, even the stronger individuals are prompted, by the uncertainty of their condition, to submit to a government which may protect the weak as well as themselves; so, in the former state, will the more powerful factions or parties be gradnally induced, by a like motive, to wish for a government which will protect all parties, the weaker as well as the more powerful Burke- the state ought not to be considered as nothing better than a partnership agreement in a trade of pepper and coffee, callico or tobacco, or some other such low concern, to be taken up for a little temporary interest, and to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties. It is the first and supreme necessity only, a necessity that is not chosen but chooses, a necessity paramount to deliberation, that admits no discussion, and demands no evidence, which alone can justify a resort to anarchy. This necessity is not exception to the rule; because this necessity itself is a part too of that moral and physical disposition of things to which man must be obedient by consent or force; but if that which is only submission to necessity should be made the object of choice, the law is broken, nature is disobeyed, and the rebellious are outlawed, cast forth, and exiled, from this world of reason, and order, and peace, and virtue, and fruitful penitence, into the antagonist world of madness, discord, vice, confusion, and unavailing sorrow.
The general diffusion of manufactures throughout a country generates a new character in its inhabitants; and as this character is formed upon a principle quite unfavourable to individual or general happiness, it will produce the most lamentable and permanent evils, unless its tendency be counteracted by legislative interference and direction.To succeed in this career, the industry of the lower orders, from whose labour this wealth is now drawn, has been carried by new competitors striving against those of longer standing, to a point of real oppression, reducing them by successive changes, as the spirit of competition increased, and the ease of acquiring wealth diminished, to a state more wretched than can be imagined by those who have not attentively observed the changes as they have gradually occurred. In consequence, they are at present in a situation infinitely more degraded and miserable than they were before the introduction of these manufactories, upon the success of which their bare subsistence now depends. ○ Key Points:. Hobbes theory of a social contract appeared in Leviathan during the Civil War in Britain. Prior to a social contract, man lived in the state of nature. Life in the state of nature was one of fear and selfishness. Man lived in chaotic conditions of constant fear. Man has a natural desire for security and order in order to avoid misery and pain. Man entered into a contract with the idea of self-preservation and self-protection. These elements are inherent to man's nature an din order to achieve this, they voluntarily surrendered all their rights and freedoms to some authority by this contract who must command obedience. The mighetest authority is to protect and preserve their lives and property.
○ State of nature? Human nature is selfish and evil People have limited altruism and are largely Egoistic (self interested) and this is their main motivation. Everyone has an equality of need, and there is a rough equality of power. Hobbes set the right of nature to pursue self interest through reason. A scarcity of resources to meet people's needs are not sufficient and there is not enough to go around. Therefore, competition sets the stage and causes a state of war. The State of nature is a state of war. In the state of nature life is solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short.
○ Which regime is best? Absolute Monarch-subjects had no rights against the absolute authority or the sovereign and he is to be obeyed in all situations however bad or unworthy he might be. The monarch is only bound by moral obligations and natural law. Humans have in them the rationally capacity to pursue their desires as efficiently and maximally as possible. On this belief, he argues that they ought to be willing to submit themselves to political authority. Subjects must surrender all their rights and vest all liberties in the sovereign for preservation of peace, life, and prosperity of the subjects. In this way the natural law became a moral guide or directive to the sovereign for preservation of the natural rights of the subjects. For Hobbes all law is dependant upon the sanction of the sovereign.
○ How is justice defined? "might is always right"--Radical form of justice. A supporter of absolutism "law is dependent upon the sanction of the sovereign and the government without sword are but words and of no strength to secure a man at all" Real law is civil law, the law commanded and enforced by the sovereign and are brought into the world are for nothing else but to limit the natural liberty of particual men, in such a manner, as they might not hurt but to assist one another and join together against a common enemy.
○ How do we get fair outcomes? Whatever the absolute monarch determines is fair is fair. He must ensure there is order and safety, so his decisions are in the best interest of the people. No matter how bad or unfair a decision might be, one must always obey. "might makes right."
○ What makes power legitimate? Absolute power is legitimate because they can protect the people. Protection and order are the main concerns of the people.