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has digestive and lubrication fuction, most domestic animals have three matching pairs
Lingual Salivary glands
sublingual salivary glands, medial to shafts of madible just under the base of the tounge
the upper 4th premoler and the lower 1st molar (site of deep infection for dogs and are difficult to extract
thick, has longitudinal and circular smooth muscle layers serves to propel material through the tract
surrounding the opening of the esophagus, cirucular muscle maintains tone to reduce reflux of stomach material back into the esophagous
muscular sphincter that regulates the movement of ingesta from the antrum protion of the stomach to the duodenum (small intestines) , also helps to prevent backflow from duodenum back into the stomach
inhibition of stomch movement from sypathetic nervous input, ie from illness or surgery
released from the duodenum in response to excess stomach acid entering the small intestines
causes increased HCL production & inhibits muscle activity of the fundus, greater relaxation and filling of the stomach
produced by goblet cells, main constituents of mucus coating which helps protect stomach lining
secreted onto the surface of the stomach to make the mucus coat more alkaline and thereby protect stomach lining from the HCL
produced by the parietal cells, starts breaking down food and converts pepsinogen to pepsin
from the parasympathetic nervous system , binds to recpetor on the parietal cell producing more HCL also causes more gastrin release
blind pouch the sphincter regulates movement of material from teh small intestine to the colon
project off of the wall of the small intestine, finger like projections of the mucosa, each villus has thousands of microvilli
Microvillia (brush boarder)
cells in this have many digestive enzymes and carrier molecules embedded in their cell membranes for the digestion and absorption or nutrients, vitimins and minerals
invagination around each villus, old cells are shed at the tip of the villus. The cells in this produce new cells to constantly replace old cells that are shed
coordinated contractions of longitudinal and circular muscle which move ingests or chyme through the intestine
Adequately mix chyme and expose fully to intestinal lining, slow movement, allow for water absorption. A lack of this movement causes diarrhea
a lack of peristalsis resulting in decreasesd movment of ingesta through the intestine, can be caused by disease and stress
Emulsification or Micelle Formation
fats broken into smaller pieces, contractions of the stomach start the process
need lipase for pancreas, fat digesting enzymes that penetrate the bile acid coating and break triglycerides down into glycerol, fatty acids, and monoglycerides
prevent fat from re-clumping, are secreated into the duodenum from the liver, these help to prevent the fat droplets from recombining into larger globules again. These have a hydrophobic end to hold onto fats, and a hydrophilic end to hold onto water, making fats more soluble
fat digesting enzymes that penetrate the bile acid coating and break triglycerides down into glycerol, fatty acids, and monoglycerides
largest organ inside the body, considered an accessory organ to digestion, filtration and detoxification
enzymes through ducts, fuction involves amylase, lipase, and proteases, also release bicarbonate into the duodenum to help maintain pH
hormoses, ductless, involves maintence of blood glucose levels through the use of insulin and glucagon
secreted by beta cells in the islets of langerhans in the pancreas. Acts to move glucose from the blood into the cells.
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