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PSY 180 Ch. 7
Terms in this set (49)
Forming a memory code
EX.) when you form a memory code for a word, you might emphasize how it looks, how it sounds, or what it means.
Maintaining encoded information in memory over time.
Focusing awareness on a narrow range of stimuli or events.
Recovering information from memory stores.
Deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.
Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.
Short-term memory (STM)
A limited- capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to about 20 seconds.
The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about information.
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
Are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of ,o,emotes events
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event.
Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.
Connectionist/ parallel distributed processing(PDP)
Models assume that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks.
The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.
Occurs when a participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information.
The process of making inferences about the origins of memories.
Source- monitoring error
Occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.
Consonant-vowem-consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words
EX.) BAF, XOF, VIR and MEQ
Graphs retention and forgetting over time
The proportion of material retained(remembered)
Requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any cues.
Recognition measure of retention
Requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of options.
Relearning measure of retention
Requires a participant to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved by having learned it before.
That forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
That people forget information because of competition from other material.
Occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
Occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information
Encoding specificity principle
The value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code.
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.
A person loses memories for events that occurred prior to the injury.
A person loses memories for events that occur after the injury.
A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory.
A long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.
The formation of new neurons.
Declarative memory system
Handles factual information
Non-declarative memory system
Houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses and emotional memories.
Episodic memory system
Made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences.
Semantic memory system
Contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned.
Involves remembering to perform actions in the future.
Involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information.
Refers to continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it.
Serial- position effect
Occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.
Are strategies for enhancing memory.
Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.
Method of Loci
Involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations.
The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how events actually turned out.
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