9th Grade Biology Chapter 3 Biochemistry
Terms in this set (45)
are made primarily of carbon atoms
influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
simple moleciles that build carbon compounds
a molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
large polymers (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids)
monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction
water is used to break down a polymer
Aenosine triphosphate (ATP)
life processes require a constant supply of energy. this energy is available to calls in the form of certain compounds that store a large amount of energy in their overall structure
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
a monomer of a carbohydrate
two monomers combined to form double sugar
long chain of amino acids that makes proteins
organic compounds, macromolecules formed by amino acids
large organic molecules, store and transfer information, types of DNA and RNA
linked monomers make DNA and RNA, 3 components: phosphate, 5-carbon sugar, ring-shaped nitrogen base
relationship between fatty acids and enzymes
there are 3 fatty acids in 1 triglyceride joined with glycerol
relationship between enzymes and substrates
enzymes bind with substrates to function properly
monomers link to form polymers, which is broken down by hydrolysis which makes a condensation reaction
how does the word, organic, is descriptive of most carbon compounds?
carbon compounds have carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
differ between organic and inorganic compounds
organic- has carbon atoms
Compare how organic compounds are built to how they are broken down
built up from monomers by condensation reaction (dehydration), broken by hydrolysis
explain the role of ATP in cellular activities
creates energy for calls in chemical reactions, phosphate is the energyy
4 major class of organic compound (macromolecules)
carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
general structure of carbohydrates
carbon 1, hydrogen 2, oxygen 2
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
ex)glucose and fructose
differences between simple sugars, double, complex
monosaccharides (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen), disaccharides (2 mono), polysaccharides (3 mono), bonded by covalent bonds in condensation
describe how a protein's structure is determined by the arrangement of amino acids
formed by linkage of amino acids, allow amino acids to perform tasks together
-bonded by condensation reaction, monomers
basic structure of amino acids
central carbon, covalently bonded with 4 other atoms
difference between formation of disaccharide and dipeptide
disaccharide: 2 sugars linked by a condensation reaction
dipeptide: 2 amino acids linked by peptide bond, condensation/ dehydration
induced fit model of enzyme activity
enzyme can only attach to reactant in a specific shape
difference between saturated and unsaturated triglycerides
saturated: solid at room temperature, example- butter
unsaturated: liquid, example- olive oil
compare the structure of triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids
triglycerides: 3 molecules of fatty acids joined to 1 molecule of alcohol glycerol (3 tails)
phospholipid: 2 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule (2 tails)
steroid: 4 fused carbon rings
how do steroids differ from other lipids?
-4 fused rings (no tails) no fatty acids
-estrogen and testosterone are steroids
important characteristics of waxes in living organisms
-waterproof, can form protective layers
compare 2 kinds of nucleic acids
DNA: contains info that determines characteristics of an organic and direct cell activities
RNA: stores/transfers information from DNA
3 parts of a nucleotide
phosphate, 5 carbon sugar, nitrogen base (nucleic acid)
which is not a function of polysaccharides?
storage of genetic information
what are functions of polysaccharides?
energy source, energy storage, structural support
is starch a lipid?
starch is a carbohydrate
what is a lipid?
what molecule stores hereditary information?
what is the name in plants that stores sugars?
what molecules make up basic structure of cell membrane?
what word describes the tables of the molecules movement away from water?
simple sugars: carbohydrates
amino acids: proteins