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CHD Chptr 12
Terms in this set (31)
Unable to reason logically about rules and concepts of right and wrong
Inflexible view that behaviors are either right or wrong, with no in-between
The notion that you always get punished for behaving inappropriately and rewarded for behaving appropriately, and conversely, that if you get punished, you must have done something bad, or, if you get rewarded, you must have done something good.
Autonomous moral reasoning
children gradually come to realize that rules are not irrevocably set by external authorities, that rules can be changed through negotiation, and that an individual's intentions must be considered in judging whether a behavior is right or wrong.
Preconventional moral Reasoning
believing that the rightness or wrongness of a behavior is determined solely by its consequences.
Obedience and Punishment orientation
Children believe that behaviors that avoid punishment must be "good" or "right"
Ex. some children insist that Heinz should not steal the drug because he would be put in jail. Others center more on the negative consequences to Heinz if he lets his wife die, that he would be sad and lonely.
hedonistic and instrumental orientation,
Believing that behaviors are "good" if they meet ones personal needs.
Behaving to gain rewards, rather than to avoid punishments.
conventional level of moral reasoning
Children develop internal standards that reflect society's values of what is right and wrong.
good boy, good girl orientation
"good" behavior to gain adult approval or to avoid disapproval
Ex. Heinz should steal the drugs and save his wife's life because everyone will admire him for "doing the right thing."
law and order orientation,
believing dogmatically that laws define what is right or wrong.
Ex. Heinz should not steal because it is forbidden.
postconventional moral reasoning
enables the individual to think beyond specific laws to abstract principles, such as justice, equality, and human rights
social contract orientation
believing that laws should be respected as the best way to balance individual interests against the needs of the group. People should obey the law because it is the best way for everyone to live harmoniously.
universal principles orientation
believing that universal moral principles (justice, equality, human rights) transcend laws made by man.
Ex. Heinz must follow his own conscience, basing his decision on what he believes is just
Each individual is constrained by a finite pool of mental resources that can be allocated to various thought processes and that total mental capacity is a constant throughout development.
Ex. a child may be unable to study effectively for an exam if she is preoccupied thinking about her friends
Mental activities that require more resources
automatic mental activities
thinking become less effortful and more automatic as a result of experience, practice, and neurological maturation
Goal directed mental operations that individuals use to deliberately facilitate their memory, attention, and problem solving.
Ex. count on their fingers to solve math problems
involves repeating items over and over--aloud or to oneself--to facilitate storage of information for later retrieval
purposeful attempt to identify conceptual relationships among items to be remembered.
Ex. potato, car, airplane, apple, spinach, bicycle
she could improve her recall by grouping the items into two exclusive categories: foods and vehicles.
Relating objects to one another with absurd or fanciful visual images
book, boy, horse, field, and rain
she could "elaborate" by generating a visual image such as "A boy was riding his horse across a field, reading his book in the rain."
If a child has no strategies and does not profit from training to promote the use of strategies
they know the strategy but they do not use it spontaneously, even when it would help them to solve problems.
use of strategies often fails to improve their performance
Elaborated Knowledge base
once a child has memorized the names of all of her classmates, she may organize the names by gender, where they sit in class, who is friends with whom, their respective reading groups, and so on
recognizing that she had not learned the concepts required to complete her assignment, by assessing what concepts she needed to know, and by sensing when her self-study had adequately prepared her to tackle the problems.
altering her study environment to reduce distraction, and by enacting specific information-gathering strategies to compensate for her deficiencies: listing the words she did not know, and using the text's glossary and the chapter introduction
5 to 7 shift
between ages 5 and 7, children go through a gradual period of transition from the illogical and unsystematic reasoning of the preoperational period to the more logical and systematic reasoning of middle childhood.
noticeable improvement over preoperational thought, but with lingering lapses in logic. With intuitive reasoning, children often get the right solutions to problems, but without understanding the underlying principles.
period of concrete operations
Piaget believed that, by age 7 or 8, children advance to the next major stage of cognitive development
ability that enables the child to adapt to his or her environment with systematic logic. For the first time, children begin to understand relationships among objects and events in their environment: that objects can be systematically related in classes, that quantities can be added, subtracted, multiplied and divided, and rules can be systematically combined to organize games and other activities.
a mental structure that unconsciously guides a child's behavior. The superego contains both a conscience that prohibits certain behaviors and an ego ideal that provides the child with an internal image that the child strives to become.
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