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90 terms

Comer Ch.7-8

STUDY
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When a physical ailment has no apparent medical cause, doctors may suspect a _________ disorder
somatoform
A person who intentionally produces or fakes physical symptoms simply out of a wish to be a patient might be diagnosed with a
factitious disorder
Psychodynamic theorists say that ___________ and ____________ are the two mechanisms at work in hysterical somatoform disorders
primary gain; secondary gain
Psychodynamic theorists believe that dissociative disorders are caused by the defense mechanism of:
repression
Symptoms of multiple personality disorder usually begin after episodes of:
abuse
Melinda is a 23-year old woman who complains of chronic abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and lack of sexual desire, for which there was no organic cause. She would most likely be diagnosed with:
somatization disorder
_________ is not a hysterical somatoform disorder
Hypochondriasis
People who suffer from ____________ unrealistically interpret bodily symptoms as signs of a serious illness
hypochondriasis
People with ___________ feel as though they have become separated from their body and are observing themselves from outside
depersonalization disorder
Derek looked at his car, knew it was his, but felt like he had never seen it before. Derek may have been experiencing
jamais vu
Behaviorists believe that the fears found in hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder have been acquired through
classical conditioning or modeling
Some argue that many cases of dissociative identity disorder are __________; that is, the symptoms are unintentionally produced by the therapist treating the patient.
latrogenic
Behavioral theorists propose that the physical symptoms of hysterical disorders bring _________ to sufferers
rewards
People who experience ____________ become deeply concerned about some imagined or minor defect in their appearance
dysmorphophobia
Some theorists conclude that dissociative disorders may be a form of __________, in which people hypnotize themselves to try to forget unpleasant events
self-hypnosis
Which disorder is considered by law enforcement to be a form of child abuse?
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
People who suffer from depersonalization disorder often experience a sensation known as ___________, or the feeling that their mind seems to be floating a few feet above them.
doubling
The ultimate goal of treatment for people with multiple personality disorder is:
integration of subpersonalities
Therapists who take a ___________ approach to somatoform disorders try to force patients out of the sick role by straightforwardly telling them that their symptoms are without medical basis.
confrontational
Freud centered his explanation of hysterical disorders on the needs and conflicts experience by ________ in the _________ stage
girls; phallic
Which disorder is marked by a parent making up or producing physical illnesses in their children?
Munchausen syndrome by proxy
Individuals with preoccupation somatoform disorders typically receive the kinds of treatment that are applied to ___________ or ___________ disorders
generalized anxiety ; obsessive-compulsive
Dissociative disorders are primarily a major disruption of ____________
memory
The final merging of two or more subpersonalities in a patient with dissociative identity disorder is known as:
fusion
__________ are the quiet observers in someone with multiple personality disorder
Co-conscious subpersonalities
People with ___________ suddenly travel to an entirely different location and cannot recall the details of their past lives
dissociative fugue
Some studies have revealed that many patients with body dysmorphic disorder improve considerably when treated with ___________ drugs
antidepressant
Todays leading explanations for hysterical somatoform disorders come from the:
psychodynamic, behavioral, and cognitive models.
People who suffer from dissociative fugue most often lose their ___________ memories, but retain their __________ memories.
episodic; semantic
An extreme and chronic form of factitious disorder is
Munchausen syndrome.
Sodium amobarbital and sodium pentobarbital are often referred to as:
truth serums.
In case of __________ amnesia, a patient loses all memory of events that took place within a limited period of time, almost always beginning with some disturbing occurrence.
localized
Some ___________ theorists propose that hysterical disorders are forms of communication, providing a means for people to express emotions that would otherwise be difficult to convey.
cognitive
___________ is credited with developing the learned helplessness theory of depression
Martin Seligman
A less disabling form of unipolar depression is known as:
dysthymic disorder
A pattern of depression found among young children caused by separation from their mothers is known as:
anaclitic depression.
According to the DSM-IV, a major depressive episode is a period marked by at least _____ symptoms of depression and lasting for ____ weeks or more
five; two
Low ________ activity accompanied by high _________ activity may lead to mania.
serotonin; norepinephrine
cognitive triad
individuals repeatedly interpret there (1)experiences, (2) themselves, and (3) their futures in negative ways that lead them to feel depressed
The category of major depressive disorder in which the person experiences excessive activity or immobility is:
catatonic
The form of bipolar disorder characterized by episodes of hyponamia alternating with major depressive episodes is:
bipolar II disorder
The hormone that may indirectly play a role in depression is:
melatonin
Which theorist is credited with formulating the concept of the cognitive triad?
Aaron Beck
Which group of Americans has the highest rate of unipolar depression?
middle-aged White Americans
Women are _____ as likely as men to experience episodes of severe unipolar depression.
two times
Learned helplessness
is the perception that one has no control over the reinforcements in their lives
___________________ studies observe the pattern of distribution of disorders among family members in order to identify possible inheritance patterns of disorders.
Family pedigree
One of the most effective treatments for seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is:
light therapy
Patients who suffer from double depression have which of the following patterns of symptoms?
They suffer from dysthymic disorder, and this leads to a diagnosis of major depressive disorder.
According to Peter Lewinsohn, which type of rewards are particularly important in the downward spiral of depression?
social rewards
Aaron Beck believes that _________________ contribute(s) to the development of depression.
maladaptive attitudes
The ________ theory holds that men and women are equally prone to depression but that clinicians fail to detect depression in men
artifact
Research has found that the sleep cycles of depressed people are disrupted in all but which of the following ways?
Depressed individuals spend almost no time in REM
Unlike unipolar depression, bipolar disorders appear to be best explained by focusing largely on:
biological factors
The most common pattern of mood disorder is:
unipolar depression
If a person experiences ______ or more episodes of shifting between mania and depression within a one-year period, their disorder would be classified as rapid cycling.
4
Depressed people sometimes experience a steady train of unpleasant thoughts that suggest to them that they are inadequate and that their situation is helpless. These are known as:
automatic thoughts.
reud proposed the concept of _______, in which other kinds of events are equated with loss of a loved one.
symbolic loss
Some theorists believe that improper transport of ________ may cause neurons to fire too easily, resulting in mania.
sodium ions
Research has found a link between ____________ and sharpened and creative thinking and greater productivity.
hypomania
cyclothymic disorder
When a person experiences numerous periods of hypomanic symptoms and mild depressive symptoms,
Hysterical Somatoform Disorder
people suffer actual changes in their physical functioning
Conversion disorder
type of hysterical disorder: a psychosocial conflict or need converted into dramatic physical symptoms that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning
Somatization Disorder
have many long-lasting physical aliments that have little or no organic basis
Pain Disorder Associated with Psychological Factors
Severity or continuation of pain, often develops after an accident or during an illness that has cause actual pain
Factitious Disorder
patient may fake or produce physical symptoms simply out of a wish to be a patient
Preoccupation Somatoform Disorder
people misinterpret and overreact to bodily symptoms
Hypochondrias
type of preoccupation Somatoform disorder where people unrealistically interpret bodily symptoms as a signs of serious illness
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
aka dysmorphphobia, people become deeply concerned with some imagined or minor defect in their appearance
Dissociative Disoerder
when changes in memory, lack a clear physical cause. A part of the person's memory seems to be dissociative (separated) from the rest
Dissociative Amnesia
is an inability to recall important personal events and information
Dissociative Fugue
forgets past but also travels to new location and may assume new identity
Dissociative Identity Disorder
aka multiple personality disorder, may have two or more separate identities that may not be aware of each others thoughts, feelings and behaviors
Depersonalization
people feel they have become detached from their own mental processes or body and are observing themselves from the outside (floating)
Circumscribed amnesia
type of dissociative disorder; most common type, loses all memory of events within a limited amount of time
Selective amnesia
2nd most common, remember some events but not all
Continuous Amnesia
forgetting continues into the present
Primary or Host
at any given time, one of the sub personalities takes center stage and dominates
Switching
transition from one sub personality to another
Mutually amnesic relationship
sub personalities have no awareness of each other
Mutually Cognizant patterns
each sub personality is well aware of the rest
One-way amnesic relationships
most common, some sub personalities are aware of others, but awareness isn't mutual
Co-concious relationships
those who are aware, "quiet observers", watch actions and thoughts
State-Dependent Learning
if people can learn something when they're in a particular situation or state of mind, they are likely to remember it best when they are again in that same condition
Hypnotized
people enter a sleep like state in which they become very suggestible. Can help people remember events that occurred and were forgotten
Self-hypnosis
people hypnotize themselves and forget unpleasant events
Derealization
feeling that the external world is unreal and strange
Depression
low, sad state which life seems dark and its challenges are overwhelming
Mania
opposite of depression, state of breathless euphoria, frenzied energy, in which people may have exaggerated belief that the world is theirs for the taking
Bipolar disorder
periods of mania that alternate with periods of depression