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medical terminology chapter 7 terms

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acute respiratiry distress syndrome (ARDS)
a form of the sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs, making breathing extremely difficult
airway inflammation
the swelling and clogging of the airways with mucus
airway obstruction
occurs when food or a foreign object blocks the airway and prevents air from entering or leaving the lungs
allergic rhinitis
an allergic reaction to airbone allergens that causes an increased flow of mucus
alveoli
the very small grape-like clustersfound at the end of each bronchiole
anoxia
the absence or nearly complete absence of oxygen from the body;s gases, blood, or tissues.
anthracosis
the form of pneumoconios caused by coal dust in the lungs; also known as black lung disease
antitussive
administered to prevent or relieve coughing
aphonia
the loss of ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
apnea
the absence of spontaneous respiration
asbestosis
the form of pneumoconios caused by asbestos particles in the lungs
asphyxia
the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function
asphyxiation
any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia; also known as suffication
aspiration pneumonia
can occur when foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
asthma
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
atelectasis
a condition in whiich the lung fails to expand completely due to shallow breathing or because the air passages are blocked
bacterial pneumonia
often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae; is the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
bradypnea
an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than ten breaths per min.
bronchi
formed where the trachea divides into two branches known as the primary bronchi
bronchioles
the smallest branches of the bronchi
bronchodilator
medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchopneumonia
a localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles and surrounding alveoli
bronchorrhea
an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
bronchoscopy
the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
bronchospasm
a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
byssinosis
caused by inhaling cotton dust into the lungs and usually occurs after working in a textile factory
chest imaging
chest x-ray; a valuable tool for diagnosing pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and emphysema
Cheyne-Strokes Respiration
a pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea followed by hyperpnea
chronic bronchitis
a condition where the airways have become inflamed and thickened, and there is an increase in the number and size of mucus-producing cells
COPD
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease disease in which it is hard to breath
cilia
the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils
collapsed lung
a lung that is unabble to expand to recieve air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis
CPAP device
positive pressure ventilation device; treatment for sleep apnea that includes a mask, tubes, and a fan to create air pressure that pushes the tongue forward to maintain an open airway
croup
an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx hoarsness and a barking cough
cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen
cystic fibrosis
a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
diaphragm
(anatomy) a muscular partition separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
diaphragmatic breathing
a relaxation technique used to relieve anxiety
diphtheria
an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract.
dysphonia
any change in vocal quality, including hoarsness, weakness, or cracking of a boys voice during puberty
dyspnea
difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath
emphysema
the progressice loss of lung function that is commonly attributed to long term smoking
empyema
an accumulation of pus or infected fluid in the pleural cavity
endotracheal intubation
the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
epiglottis
a lid like structure located at the base of the tongue
epistaxis
bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury excessice use of blood thinners or bleeding disorders; also known as a nosebleed
ethmoid sinuses
located in the ethmoid bones, separated from the orbital cavity by only a thin layer of bone
eupnea
easy or normal breathing
exhalation
the act of breathing out