period 3 vocab
Terms in this set (59)
Seven Years War
lasted from 1754-1763. The war began in America between the French and Indian Allies against the British and Indian Allies. It extended to be fought in Europe, the West Indies, the Philippines, and Africa.
Albany Plan of Union
a plan made to unite the 13 colonies under one central government. This plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754.
An Enlightenment thinker commonly known as the "father of liberalism." He defended the natural rights of man, that all men are free and equal.
Major revolutionary and patriot, famous for the phrase "Give me Liberty or give me death!" This rang out through the colonies and inspired revolutionaries.
Ascended to the British throne in 1760 and reigned for 59 years. Led England through the success to Revolutionary and Napoleonic France.
Prime minister of Britain during the reign of King George III, who persuaded Parliament to repeal the Townshend revenue duties but keep the toll on tea, the tax the colonists found most offensive.
Became the prime minister of Great Britain in the year 1763. Political ally and brother of William Pitt
Stamp Act Congress
a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765, in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the colonies; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
First Continental Congress
Meeting between delegates of all colonies (except Georgia) on september 5, 1774, in Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts. In the end, they petitioned King George to halt the enforcement of the Intolerable Acts.
Sons of Liberty
Groups of young men who would get together to forcefully enforce the non importation agreement and spread patriotic messages.
One of the Founding Fathers, first Vice President and Second President of the United States. He served on the First Continental Congress and helped write the Declaration of Independence. He represented the British soldiers on trial for killing 5 civilians in the Boston Massacre.
First lady and wife of John Adams. While John Adams was over serving as US minister to France and England she kept him informed of domestic affairs. First lady and mother to two US presidents. Early advocate of women's rights
In the beginning, he fought against the British and captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point. Though he felt his actions were unappreciated, and so he negotiated with the British to turn over West Point. The plot was discovered, but he escaped to British lines and was labeled a traitor.
Mohawk chief who converted to Anglicanism and believed the British victory would stop American expansion into Native American territories; devastated much of Pennsylvania and New York with the British until 1779
George Rogers Clark
A frontiersman that seized 3 British forts that were located along the Ohio river from 1778-1779. This possibly led to the British surrendering the region North of the Ohio river to the United States.
Second Continental Congress
A meeting between all of the colonies in Philadelphia, PA on May 10, 1775. They reconvened in order to continue their discussions about British rule and the freedom of the colonies.
Olive Branch Petition
July 1775 - Adopted by the Continental Congress, professed American loyalty. Means to end hostility. Rejected by King George, who declared the colonies were initiating a rebellion.
privately owned, armed ships that were authorized by congress to prey on enemy shipping. The men who sailed them were known as the "men of fortune"
American Revolutionary war
The war between Great Britain and the American colonies from 1775 to 1783, by which the colonies won their independence. Started with Britain trying to tighten their grip on America and tax the colonists for the previous war.
Declaration of Independence
formally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776. The document was written by Thomas Jefferson and declared the freedom of the 13 colonies from Britain. In the document, Jefferson included the "natural rights" of humankind and argued that the king had violated these rights. He explained that the colonists were therefore justified in cutting their connection from Great Britain.
He represented Virginia at the First Continental Congress, and was the principal writer of the Declaration of Independence. He also explained the violation of natural rights in the document, and was later elected the third president of the United States.
He was an american public official, writer, scientist, and printer. A popular work of his is Poor Richard's Almanac. He negotiated French support for the colonists during the Revolution and later helped draft the Constitution. He was a symbol for the American Enlightenment through the way he tried to improve society.
a pamphlet that propelled the Colonies towards revolution. The pamphlet, describing the injustices of King George, quickly became the top selling piece of new literature in the country.
Author of Common Sense
Articles of Confederation
The first written constitution of the United States. Stemmed from wartime urgency and the progress was slowed by fears of central authority and extensive land claims. Under these articles states remained sovereign and independent with Congress as last resort.
Treaty of Paris 1783
The peace treaty signed by Britain and the United States that ended the Revolutionary War. The British formally recognized American independence and ceded territory east of the Mississippi while the Americans, in turn, promised to restore Loyalist property and stop persecuting Loyalists, in addition to repaying debts to British creditors.
Maybe the most important document in American history. This states the rights of all Americans and what are the government is founded on.
Bill of Rights
the first 10 amendments to the US constitution. It also adds to the Constitution specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on the government's power in judicial and other proceedings. and explicitly declares that all powers not specifically delegated to Congress by the Constitution are reserved for the states or the people.
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
An act of the congress of the Confederation of the United States that Created the Northwest Territory, containing lands directly west of the great lake that were beyond the appalachian mountains and above the mississippi river.
Land west of Pennsylvania, east of the Mississippi River, and northwest of the Ohio River. It is in present day Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, as well as the northeastern part of Minnesota.
Washington's Farewell Address
Given in 1796, it was printed in newspapers but never delivered orally. Washington strongly advised the avoidance of permanent alliances, and favored only temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies.
The idea that American women had a special responsibility to cultivate "civic virtue" in their children and educate them
The spirit of nation-consciousness or national oneness; exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests.
Shays' Rebellion (1786)
Quickly put down armed uprising of western Massachusetts impoverished farmers, many of them Revolutionary War veterans, led by Captain Daniel Shays seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures that inspired fears of "mobocracy"
was created in order to give larger populated states more votes in congress. This is considered to be apart of the framework of the modern day Constitution.
New Jersey Plan
1787 - "small-state plan", put forward at the Philadelphia convention. Proposed equal representation for states of all population sizes in legislature. Small states didn't want to be overpowered by larger states in a proportional system.
Great Compromise/Connecticut Compromise
an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787. It provided the dual system of representation where in the House of Representatives each state's representation in proportion to population, and in the Senate, all states would have the same number of seats.
Three out of every five slaves were counted as people when the government was deciding how many delegates each state gets.
a group selected by the states to elect the president and vice-president. Each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
a review by the United States Supreme Court that determines the validity and constitutionality of a legislative act.
Signing or giving formal consent to make a treaty, contract, or agreement officially valid
a group of individuals who supported states rights, and dictated that the founding doctrine, the Constitution, was to serve as a unifying document for the states. The most famous was Alexander Hamilton
Diverse group of people who opposed the ratification of the Constitution.
Bill of Rights
1791 - The first ten amendments of the Constitution intended to safeguard the most precious American principles. protects freedom of religion, speech, and the press, and the rights to bear arms, be tried by jury, and assemble and petition the government. It also prohibits cruel and unusual punishment and arbitrary government seizure of private property.
A collection of essays written by Alexander Hamilton john jay and James Madison. They were written to promote the adoption of the united states constitution.
persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers.
One of the founding Father of the US, an influential Interpreter and promoter of the US constitution, as well as the founder of the nation's financial system (the federalist party), and the first Secretary of the Treasury. He also established a national bank, a system of tariffs, and friendly trade relations with Britain.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Established the judicial courts of the United States. It was signed into effect by George Washington on September 24, 1789.
Began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790's with the rise of Napoleon Bonaparte. French citizens uprooted absolute monarchy and the feudal system. It was caused by widespread discontent with the French monarchy and the poor economic policies of King Louis XVI. It played a critical role in shaping modern nations by proving the innate power of human will.
a group of voters organized to support certain public policies. The aim is to elect officials who will try to carry out the party's policies
This belief was initially instituted when Jefferson took office. They believed in a limited national government because they thought a powerful central government would threaten individual liberties, as well as reduced federal spending.
Taxes on imports; usually supported by manufacturers and opposed by those with agricultural interests
A tax imposed on the manufacturing of an item. Used to show the strong power of the central government that was supported by industry and manufacturing. Part of what caused the Whiskey rebellion in 1794.
A rebellion that came to be in southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 due to pioneers not agreeing with the new tax laws placed on their whiskey. They became fed up, and stopped paying the tax collectors. George Washington answered this "rebellion" by sending 13,000 U.S. militiamen to Pennsylvania. Three of the rebels were killed in this rebellion, and after this show of dominance Washington received much more respect from the colonies.
1794 - Negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay to avoid war with Britain. British promise to leave outposts on American soil and pay for damages made while seizing American vessels. In exchange for Jay getting America to repay pre-Revolution debts and abide by Britain's trade policies with France.
a diplomatic incident between French and United States diplomats when President Adams sent three men to negotiate in France, and they were approached by X, Y, and Z, who said that in order to talk, the americans would need to pay 25000 USD, which they refused to pay, causing negotiations to break down.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, passed by John Adams. The US could kick out out or apprehend immigrants.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
drafted in 1798 by Kentucky and Virginia legislatures, who believed the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolves stated that the states had the right to declare any acts of congress unconstitutional that were not authorized by the Constitution.
Bank of the United States
Chartered by Congress as part of Alexander Hamilton's financial program. The bank printed paper money and served as a depository for treasury funds, and it drew opposition from Jeffersonian Republicans, who argued that the bank was unconstitutional.
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