33 terms

Looking At Movies Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Editing
selecting, arranging, assembling of visuals, sounds, special effects // The joining together of discrete shots gives movies the power to choose what the viewer sees and how that viewer sees it at any given moment.
Cutting
(splicing) The actual joining together of two shots. The editor must first cut (or splice) each shot from its respective roll of film before gluing or taping all the shots together.
Flashback
the interruption of chronological plot time with a shot or series of shots showing an even that has happened earlier in the story
Flashforward
the interruption of present action by a shot or series of shots that show images from the plot's future
Ellipsis
omission of time—the time that separates one shot from another—to create dramatic or comedic impact.
Montage
1. In France, the word for editing, from the verb monter, "to assemble or put together."
2. In the former Soviet Union in the 1920s, the various forms of editing that expressed ideas developed by theorists and filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein.
3. In Hollywood, beginning in the 1930s, a sequence of shots, often with superimpositions and optical effects, showing a condensed series of events.
Duration
A quantity of time. In any movie, we can identify three specific kinds of duration:
- STORY duration: the time that the entire narrative are-whether explicitly presented on-screen or not-is implied to have take.
- PLOT duration: the time that the events explicitly shown on-screen are implied to have taken.
- SCREEN duration: the actual time that has elapsed to present the movie's plot, i.e. the movie's running time.
Content curve
arc that measures information in a shot; at the curve's peak, the viewer has absorbed the information from a shot and is ready to move on to the next shot.
Continuity editing
A style of editing (now dominant throughout the world) that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers to what they see on the screen. Continuity editing ensures the flow from shot to shot; creates a rhythm based on the relationship between cinematic space and cinematic time; creates filmic unity (beginning, middle, and end); and establishes and resolves a problem. In short, continuity editing tells a story as clearly and coherently as possible.
Discontinuity editing
seeking to achieve transitions between shots that are not smooth, continuous, or coherent, permits a filmmaker to make abrupt shifts between shots, calls attention to itself as an element of cinematic form
Coverage
scene is photographed with a variety of individual shots, running from the general to the specific, taken from various distances and angles
Master shot
single scene with a long shot that covers the characters and action in one continuous take
Screen direction
The direction that a figure or object moves on the screen
180-degree system/axis of action
(imaginary line, line of action, axis of action or 180-degree rule). // imaginary horizontal line between the main characters being photographed, determines where the camera should be placed to maintain continuity//
The system assumes three things:
(a) the action within a scene will always advance along a straight line, either from left to right or from right to left of the frame;
(b) the camera will remain consistently on one side of that action;
(c) everyone on the production set will understand and adhere to this system.
Shot/reverse shot
the camera and editor switches between shots of different characters, usually in a conversation or other interaction//When used in continuity editing, the shots are typically framed over each character's shoulder to preserve screen direction.
Match-on-action cut
shows us the continuation of a character's or object's motion through space without actually showing us the entire action
Graphic match cut
the similarity between shots A and B is in the shape and form of what we see//The shape, color, or texture of objects matches across the edit, providing continuity
Eye-line match cut
joins shot A, in which a person looks at someone offscreen, and shot B, the object of that gaze looking back
Parallel editing (crosscutting)
the cutting together of two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously at different locations
Intercutting
Editing of two or more actions that take place at different locations and/or different times but give the impression of one scene
Point-of-view editing
process of editing different shots together in such a way that the resulting sequence makes us aware of the perspective or point of view of a particular character or group of characters//starts with objective show of a character looking toward something offscreen, cuts to a shot of the object, person, or action that the character is supposed to be looking at
Jump cut
presents an instantaneous reverse or advance in the action// sudden, perhaps illogical, often disorienting ellipsis between two shots caused by the absence of a portion of the film that would have provided continuity
Fade-in/fade-out
transitional devices that allow a scene to open or close slowly/ fade in: shot appears out of a black screen and grows gradually brighter/ fade out: shot grows rapidly darker until the screen turns black for a moment/ suggest a break in time, place, or action
Dissolve
(lap dissolve) A transitional device in which shot B, superimposed, gradually appears over shot A and begins to replace it at midpoint in the transition//Dissolves usually indicate the passing of time//fast dissolves: imply rapid change of time, slow: gradual change of time
Wipe
transitional device, shot B wipes across shot A, either vertically or horizontally, to replace it. harsh line, or soft-edge wipe, jagged = violent
Iris shot
iris-out: begins with a large circle that closes in around the subject, iris-in: begins with a small circle and expands to a partial or full image
Freeze frame
(stop-frame or hold-frame) still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing in the laboratory of the same frame so that it can be seen without movement for whatever length of time the filmmaker desires//stops time and functions somewhat like an exclamation point in a sentence
Split screen
produces an effect that is similar to parallel editing in its ability to tell two or more stories at the same cinematic time, whether or not they are actually happening at the same time or even in the same place
shot
two explicit values: what is within the shot itself (director, cinematography, production designer)& how the shot is situated in relation to other shots(editing)
Kuleshov effect
the effect of perceiving such spatial relationships even when we are given minimal visual information or when we are presented with shots filmed at entirely different times and places
reverse-angle shot
shooting at an angle that is opposite to that in a preceding shot
match cut
shot A and shot B are matched in action, subject, graphic content, or two character's eye contact, helps create sense of continuity between the two shots// several kinds
swish pan
camera moves so rapidly that it blurs the moment of transition
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