105 terms

Looking At Movies Chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY
Cinematography
The process of capturing moving images on film or a digital storage device
Shot
One uninterrupted run of the camera, the recording on film, video, or other medium resulting from that run
Take
number of times a particular shot is taken
Setup
One camera position and everything associated with it
Camera crew
Technicians that make up two separate groups-one concerned with the camera and the other concerned with electricity/lighting.
Camera operator
The member of the camera crew who does the actual shooting.
Assistant Camerapersons (ACs)
Member of the camera crew who assists the camera operator.
Slate
The board or other device that is used to identify each scene during shooting.
Gaffer
The chief electrician on a movie production set. chief lighting electrician
Best boy
First assistant electrician to the gaffer. more concerned with tech issues and power
Grips
All-around handy person, works with camera crew and electrical crew to get camera and lighting ready
Film stock
Celluloid used to record movies- one black and white, one color
Speed
exposure index- how sensitive it is to light (extremely sensitive, useful in low light- fast(grainy), require a lot of light- slow(fine-grained))
Colorization
The use of digital technology to paint colors on movies.
Additive color systems
In-early film-making, techniques used to add color to black and white images- hand coloring, stenciling, tinting, toning
Subtractive color system
Adopted in the 1930s, involved takes away unwanted colors from white light
Widescreen aspect ratio
Wider than 1.33:1, the standard ratio until the 1950s
Focusable spotlights
A lamp that produces hard, mirror like light that can directed to precise locations.
Floodlights.
A lamp that produces soft light, few or no shadows
Reflector board
used to reflect sunlight into shadows during outdoor shooting, doesn't rely on bulbs to produce light
Three-point system
cast glamorous light on the stars- key light, fill light and backlight.
Key light
Also known as main light or source light, the brightest light falling on an object, creates hard shadows
Fill light
Lighting positioned at the opposite side of the camera from the key light, adjusts the depth of the shadows created by brighter key light
Lighting ratio
The relationship and balance between illumination and shadow (key and fill lights)
Low-key lighting
Lighting that creates strong contrast; sharp, dark shadows, little or no fill light used, overall gloomy atmosphere
High-key lighting
Lighting that produces an image with very little contrast between darks and lights (dramas, musicals, comedies adventure films)
Backlight
Lighting usually positioned behind and in line with the subject and the camera, used to create highlights on the subject (edge/rim lights)
Production values
The amount of human and physical resources devoted to the image.
Lens
piece of curved, polished glass or other transparent material, "eye" of the camera, bring the light into a focused image
Aperture/iris??
adjustable iris that limits the amount of light passing through a lens- the greater the size, the more light it admits through the lens
Focal length
The distance from the optical lens to the focal point.
Short-focal length lens
(wide-angle lens) makes subjects on the screen appear farther apart than they actually are, objects might appear to be moving faster than they actually are
Long-focal length lens
(telephoto lens) brings distant objects close, makes subjects look closer together, flattens space and depth
Middle-focal length lens
(normal lens) correspond to our day-to-day experience of depth and perspective
Zoom lens
(variable-focal-length lens) stimulates effect of movement of the camera toward or away from object
Prime lenses
shot, long, and middle focal length lenses: fixed focal lengths
Depth of field
The distance in front of the camera and its lens in which objects are in sharp focus (pg 231)
Planes
Any three theoretical areas- foreground, middle ground, and background- within the frame.
Rack focus
Also known as select focus, shift focus, or pull focus.- change of the point of focus from one subject to another
Aspect ratio
ratio of the width of the image to its height
Extreme long shot (XLS)
an establishing shot, emphasis on relationship to surroundings, far enough away from the subject that the subject is too small.
Long shot
full body shot.
Medium long shot (MLS)
in between medium and long shot, one or more characters, "american shot"
Medium shot
shows the human body, usually from the waist up.
Medium close-up (MCU)
shows a character from the middle of the chest to the top of the head. typically not in center of screen (seems unbalanced)
Extreme close-up (XCU or ECU)
camera records a very small detail of the subject
Two-shot
contains two characters
Three-shot
contains three people
Blimp
soundproof enclosure in which a camera may be mounted to prevent its sounds from reaching the microphone
Deep-space composition
a total visual composition that places significant information or subjects on all three planes of the frame and thus create an illusion
Deep-focus cinematography
using shot-focal-length lens, keeps all three planes sharp
Rule of thirds
grid pattern divides image into horizontal and vertical thirds (left to right and top to bottom are NATURAL MOVEMENTS)
Shooting angle
level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed
Eye-level shot
made from observer's eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude toward the subject being photographed is neutral (typical for conventional medium headshot)
High-angle shot
made with the camera above the action and typically implies the observer's sense of superiority to the subject being photographed
Low-angle shot
made with the camera below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force
Dutch-angle shot
camera tilted from normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight. tilted, causes uneasy/unsettling feeling
Aerial-view shot
extreme type of point-of-view shot, taken from an aircraft or crane, implies observer's omniscience
Scale
size and placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest
Pan shot
horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod (can use tilt or pan to hide zoom) PIVOT SHOTS
Tilt shot
vertical movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod (can use tilt or pan to hide zoom) PIVOT SHOTS
Dolly shot
(tracking/traveling shot) taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support known as a dolly. cam follows along with something. helps make shot look smoother
Dolly
wheeled support for a camera
Dolly in
move toward subject, subject grows in frame
Dolly-out
moving away from the subject
Tracking shot
type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action (alongside, above, beneath, behind, ahead of it)
Zoom-in
magnifies image, lens does not move through space
Crane shot
made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that is mounted on a vehicle capable of moving on its own. good for aerial/rising/lowering shots, getting over large objects
Steadicam
device attached to the operator's body that steadies the camera, avoids jumpiness- smooth, fast camera movement. cam on a pole with weighs to balance
Omniscient POV
shows what the omniscient camera sees, typically from a high angle
Single character's POV
shot made with the camera close to the line of sight of a character, shows what that person would be seeing of the action
Group POV
shows us what a group of characters would see at their level
Slow motion
decelerates action by photographing it at a rate greater than the normal 24 frames per second (less rapid than real life)
Fast motion
accelerates action by photographing it at less than the normal filming rate (more rapid on screen)
Long take
can run as long as there is sufficient media in the camera to record it- sequence shot, unified pattern of events
Special effects (SPFX, FX)
technology that creates images that would be too dangerous, expensive, or impossible to achieve with traditional materials
In-camera effects
created in the production camera on the original negative
Mechanical effects
creates objects or events mechanically on the set and in front of the camera
Laboratory effects
created on a fresh piece of film stock
computer generated imagery- CGI
application of computer graphics to create special effects, used to create enhanced imagery
Process shot
made by filming action in front of a rear-projection screen that has on it still or moving images for the background
motion capture
specific CGI effect in which a live-action subject wears a bodysuit fitted with reflective markers that enables a computer to record each movement as digital images (motion tracking, mocap)
cinematographer
director of photograph, DP, someone who "photographs" the talent, uses technical expertise and gifted eye to help director tell story visually. responsible for photographic properties of shot (film stock, lens. lighting, composition, movement, production design)
First AC (assistant camera person)
part of camera crew directly under DP. oversees everything having to do with the camera, lenses, supporting equipment, material on which the movie is being shot
Second AC (assistant camera person)
part of camera crew directly under DP. prepares the slate that is used to identify each scene as it is shot, files camera repots, when film stock is being used, feeds that stock into magazines that are then loaded onto the camera
film stock formats
8mm, Super 8mm, 16 mm, 35 mm, 65 mm, 70mm, IMAX
tonality
system of tones, distinguishing quality of black-and-white film stock
color grading
process of altering and enhancing the color of a motion picture with electronic, photochemical, or digital techniques
digital imaging technician (DIT)
responsible for managing media capture with post production image manipulation in mind
toland and welles
orson welles (22) [war of the worlds, citizen kane (late thirties early forties)] & gregg roland [grapes of wrath and wuthering heights]. THESE TWO lead to success of citizen kane, one of the most critically acclaimed and influential films of all time.
Auteur theory
a movie reflects director's personal, creative vision (believed director is the only important person in movie making, NOT TRUE). associated with french new wave
narrative cinema
is a collaborative creation. 3 PIVOTAL COLLABS (actor & director, editor and director, cinematographer and director)
director
someone who works with the "talent"
composition
starts with a rectangle. horizontal axis (X), vertical axis (Y) and diagonal axis (Z).
look space
when there is open space that the subject is looking into. (head on left third of screen, looking to right "looking into the future") if head on one side looking OUT OF VIEW, "longing, lost in thought"
aspect ratios
16:9 (fairly wide)>1.85 (most common)>2.35 (widest, CINEMA SCOPE, great for sweeping vistas)
natural light
THE SUN, controlled by bounce, shade/screen. no "bounce" (not exposed properly, face looks dark). with "bounce", sun reflected well, good exposure.
five aspects of light
intensity, contrast, color, direction, quality
intensity
quantity of light in a shot. overexposed- lit too intensely. underexposed-not enough light to make out details.
contrast
difference between most and least illuminated areas of the shot
color
along range from blue to orange (sunlight feels "cooler", blue to white) interior bulbs (feels warm, orangish)
direction
source of light is where shadows are cast. backlight separates subject from background
inky
200 watt, focuses and directs light
condor
100,000watt
quality
determined by all other factors, hard/soft light
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR