Upgrade to remove ads
anatomy final test 3 & 4
Terms in this set (160)
Solar plexus is another name for the
Autonomic nerve plexus in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities wherein sympathetic preganglionic fibers include the
The 2nd order neurons of olfactory pathway have cell bodies located
near specialized olfactory receptors within the epithelium.
When air is drawn through the nose
sniffing repeatedly increased the intensity of olfactory stimulation and permits sampling of virtually all the air taken in at each respiration.
Older individuals sometimes use larger amounts of perfume because they lose their sense of smell; this is related to
a decrease in sensitivity of the olfactory cortex.
Factors that contribute to a conscious perception of taste include
the strength of the aroma of the food.
The gustatory structure with the most taste buds in an adult is
the fungiform papilla.
Taste buds are
Research indicates that the pharynx may have special taste buds fo
fat and cholesterol.
Damage to the cupula of the lateral semicircular duct would interfere with our proprioception of
vertical rotation of the head.
The three main anatomical regions into which the ear is divided are
external ear, tympanum, stapes.
The inner ear includes the
The auditory ossicles connect the
cochlea to the tympanic membrane
The system of fluid-filled tubes and chambers of the inner ear is called the
membranous the labyrinth.
The auditory ossicle that covers the oval window is the
The size difference between the tympanic membrane and oval window causes vibrations to
Sensory receptors of the ear are
The sensory neuron cell bodies in the spinal ganglion
is the first component of the auditory pathway.
Tones and patterns will become incomprehensible
if the auditory cortex is damaged.
The lacrimal glands
produce less fluid than the ocular conjunctiva.
Damage to the fovea of the eye interferes with the ability to
none of the above.
The anteriorly curving bulge of the eye on which a person may put "contacts" is called the
Each rod/ cone cell of an eye
monitors specific colors/ tone of black and white.
The cells of the endocrine and nervous systems work together to
provide widespread physiological effects throughout the body.
Hormones influence cellular operations by changing the ___________ of cytoplasmic enzymes.
Changes in composition of extracellular fluid are called
Most endocrine reflexes are controlled by
the ________ is nervous in structure, but endocrine in function.
ADH release due to low blood pressure
is an example of positive feedback
ADH is manufactured by the
decrease in pancreatic secretion.
Inhibitory hormones (IH) directly cause
all types of hormones to decrease secretion.
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) causes the release of
glucocorticoids by the suprarenal cortex.
The thyroid gland is located just inferior to the
all the above.
what is attached to the kidney
all of the above
A kidney hormone that stimulates red blood cell production by bone marrow is
The testis in the male produce androgens in the
The main hormone secreted by female ovaries include
The most important hormone produced by the pineal gland is
Gigantism and acromegaly occur as a result of
overproduction of mineralocorticoids.
Early menopause in women will occur if the
production of estrogens decline too much to support ovulation.
Conscious thought processes and all intellectual functions originate in the
what contains 95% of neural tissue
Together the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are called the
The largest region of the brain is
none of the above.
Blood and CSF drain from the brain in the
The extensions of dura mater that enter the longitudinal fissure is the
Arachnoid granulations are
projections of the dura mater into the arachnoid mater.
The term subdural hematoma refers to blood accumulation
under the pia.
The outer endosteal layer is fused to the periosteum of
The primary purpose of the blood-brain barrier is to
drain blood from the brain.
Compounds that diffuse passively across the blood-brain barrier
more equally free in both directions.
The choroid plexus
none of the above
When blood supply to a portion of the brain is cut off, the resulting damage is called
The CSF produced by the choroid plexus of the brain circulates through the
cervical, brachial, and lumbosacral plexuses
The olfactory nerves exit the cranium through the
what is the only cranial nerve to leave the head and neck region
cranial nerve 5
The sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles are innervated by
The cranial nerves are
components of the PNS that connect to the brain
Cranial nerves that have autonomic components include
III, VII, IX, X.
Cranial nerve VIII is associated
The autonomic division of the nervous system directs
Major divisions of ANS include
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Norepinephrine released from sympathetic fibers is usually
The most widely used neurotransmitter in the ANS is
all the above; norepinephrine, epinephrine, ACh, GABA.
Tissue responds to neurotransmitters
result from opening ion channels.
Their cell bodies are situated in
lateral gray horns of spinal cord.
Generally speaking, the ANS
can inhibit or activate an organ.
Preganglionic fibers of sympathetic nervous system that carry motor impulses to targets in abdominopelvic cavity synapse in a
The sympathetic division generally
Signs of sympathetic stimulation include an
increase in cardiovascular and respiratory activity.
The collateral ganglia are located
posterior to the descending aorta.
what are sympathetic chain ganglion
all of the above
are sympathetic chain ganglia.
Preganglionic fibers connecting sympathetic chain ganglion to collateral ganglia make
Parasympathetic ganglia in the head include
collateral and celiac.
increase in ability of blood to coagulate
PNS fibers involved in eye control are from
general functions of the PNS include
secretions of hormones that promote nutrient absorption by peripheral cells
Lymph cells respond to which of the following?
The production of lymphocytes is
The ability of lymphocytes to recognize an antigen is called
Blocking the antigen receptors on the surface of lymphocytes would interfere with
Antibodies specifically attack
Together, the epithelium and the lamina propria of the respiratory tract constitute
Which of the following statements is true of the respiratory epithelium?
protects respiratory surfaces from dehydration
The ___ is lined by a squamous epithelium.
The area of the respiratory passageways that begins at the larynx and extends into the alveoli is the
lower respiratory tract
The nasal and oral cavities both lead to the
What is the effect of turbulence of the air passing between the vestibule and the nasal chamber?
It allows extra time for warming and humidifying incoming air
Which of the following is a function of the glottis?
production of sound
The larynx is composed of ___ cartilages.
The false vocal cords are also called (the)
If the epiglottis fails to cover the glottis at the appropriate time, which of the following is the most likely consequence?
The person would be likely to choke
Changing of the diameter of the trachea is provided by (the)
Which of the following is an epithelial change seen as the bronchial tree branches from larger to smaller passageways?
Goblet cells disappear
The septa of the lungs divide the lungs into
Compared with the left primary bronchus, the right primary bronchus is
All of these answers are correct
The irregular surface of the lungs that contains the hilum is called the
The tertiary bronchi ultimately branch into 6500
Another name for muscular arteries is
Underneath the endothelium of arteries is a layer of
Which is the layer of the arterial wall that thickens to the greatest degree in the atherosclerosis?
A very thick connective tissue sheath, primarily composed of collagen fibers with scattered bands of elastic fibers, that blends into the surrounding tissues and assists in anchoring the blood vessel, is (the)
Veins are much more easily distended under pressure than are arteries
because their walls are thinner and contain a lower pressure than arteries
Vessels that sometimes do not have a basal lamina are called
Which of the following is not one of the four mechanisms responsible for exchanhe in capillaries and sinusoids?
primary active transport
Which of the following is common around joints?
Why do arteries lack the valves that are commonly present in veins?
Arterial blood pressure is high enough that no valves are required to prevent the regurgitation of blood in the wrong direction
Lymph flows through lymphatic vessels due to
both skeletal muscle contractions and respiratory movements
The cisterna chyli receives lymph from which of the following?
All of these answers are correct
Clinical symptoms that would indicate that there is a blockage in the right lymphatic duct would include
edema of the right are and upper chest
Which organ or tissues contains equal numbers of B and T cells?
Which of the following is a function of T cells?
Cells that stay in the body and make it easier to fight off an infection the second time you get it are called
The lymphocytes that fight infections in the connective tissues of the body reach these areas by
passing independently in and out of the circulatory vessels
Classes of lymphocytes in the body include
All of these answers are correct
control the activation and activity of B cells
Lymphocytes are called "wandering" cells because
they can move from one area of the body to another by entering and exiting the bloodstream
Approximately 10-15 percent of the circulating lymphocytes are
Providing antibody-mediated or humoral immunity is primarily the job of (the
Structures in the heart that carry electrical signals from the SA node to the AV node are called
Which of the following is true of the contractions of the heart?
Cardiac contractions are coordinated by specialized conductive cardiac muscle fibers
Pacemaker cells of the SA node depolarize about
80-100 times per minute
The phase of the cardiac cycle during which each chamber contracts and pushes blood into the next structure is
During most of ventricular diastole, the
the ventricles are filling
During one cardiac cycle the ventricles spend most of their time in
The most important factor in ensuring that blood moves in correct order through the heart is (the)
pressure of blood in each of the chambers at any given time
In terms of time, at rest one cardiac cycle lasts
a little under 1 second
Nodal activity of the heart may be influenced or modified by
the autonomic nervous system
At rest the heart rate is usually __ by parasympathetic control.
The innermost layer of the heart wall is the
Cardiac muscle differs from other muscle tissue in
having fibers connected to one another at intercalated discs
The contraction of any one cardiac muscle fiber
will cause the contraction of several others
Cardiac muscle cells obtain energy almost exclusively through
Blood vessels, in correct order from largest to smallest,are:
The outermost layer of a blood vessel, which is very thick, composed chiefly of collagen fibers, with scattered bands of elastic fibers is the
Which of the following applies to elastic arteries?
The media of these arteries contains a high density of elastic fibers and relatively few smooth muscle cells
have a thick media with a large amount of smooth muscle fiber within them
Large veins include the
superior and inferior venae cavae
Which of the following is true of an artery?
It has a relatively thick media
What type of tissue is blood?
Blood assists in defending the body against toxins and pathogens by
transporting white blood cells to injury or infection sites
Plasma proteins that are important in the body defense are the
Compared to water, whole blood is
all of these answers are correct
Formed elements include which of the following?
red blood cells
The plasma of the blood contains about 79%
Which of the following would be classified as hypervolemic for the average adult male
Composition of the plasma and the interstitial fluid differs chiefly in the concentration of
dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide
The major difference between plasma and interstitial fluid include
plasma has a much higher protein concentration
The class of protein involved in clotting is (the)
Plasma protein attached to cholesterol is a form of
What formes element in the blood is flattened and circular, lacks a nucleus, mitochondria, and ribosomes, and is red in color because of the presence of hemoglobin
____ exists when the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced
The molecule that binds oxygen contains globin proteins with four attached
Why is oxygen able to diffuse out of the bloodstream and into the peripheral tissues passively
There is a lower concentration of oxygen in the tissues than in the bloodstream
Which of the following prevents an erythrocyte from using the oxygen it carries?
the lack of mitochondria
A low red cell count could cause which of the following problems?
diminished transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Papillary muscles of the right ventricle recieve a signal to contract from (the)
Sets with similar terms
Biology Exam #2
BIOL 292 Final Exam
SAMPLE EXAM 4
BIOL 3204 - Minghetti - Exam 3
Other sets by this creator
OSAT subtest 1
Civil War StudyGuide
Anatomy Final test 2