25 terms

Earthquakes, and Faults

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Stress
A force that acts on rock to change its shape or voulme.
Tension
Stress that streches rock so that it becomes tinner in the middle.
Compression
Stress that squeezes rock untill it folds or breaks.
Shearing
Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite direcions, in sideways movement.
Normal Fault
A type of fault where the hanging wallslides downward caused by tension in the crust.
Hanging Wall
The block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault.
Foot Wall
The block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault.
Reverse Fault
A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward caused by compression in the crust.
Strike-Slip Fault
A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion.
Plateau
A landform that has high elevation and more or less level surface, usually caused by Normal Fault.
Earthquake
The shaking that results from the movment of rock beneath earths surface.
Focus
The point beneath earths surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake.
Epicenter
The point on earths surface directly above an earthquake focus.
P Waves
A type of seismic wave that compresses and expaneds the ground.
S Waves
A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
Surface Waves
a type of seismic wave that cause the most damage
Mercalli Scale
a scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity and how much damage they cause at a particular place
Richter Scale
a scale that rates an earthquake's magnitude based on the size of its seismic waves
Seismograph
a device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves as they move through Earth
Moment Magnitude Scale
a scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released by an earthquake
Seismogram
the record of an earthquake's seismic waves produced by a seismograph
Friction
the force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
Liquefaction
The process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
Aftershock
an earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
Tsunami
giant waves caused by an earthquake on the ocean floor