compound used by cells to store and release energy
Process that requires oxygen
Process that does not require oxygen
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compounds; also called a producer
thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in some cells
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
threadlike structure of DNA and protein that contains genetic information in eukaryotes, these are found in the nucleus; in prokaryotes, they are found in the cytoplasm.
Substance found in eukaryotic chromosomes that consists of DNA tightly coiled around histones
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
short hairlike structures that cover some or all of the cell surface and help them organisms move
in eukaryotic cells, all cellular contents outside the nucleus; in prokaryotic cells, all of the cells' contents
process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are less concentrated
light microscope used for low magnifications and larger objects
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents
Alcohol made by converting starches and sugars from plant material into alcohol and CO2.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells; place where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled
organism whose cells contain a nucleus
Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
fluid mosaic model
Structural model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer.
structure used by protists for movement; produces movement in a wavelike motion
organelle in cells that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
A simple sugar that is an important source of energy.
first set of reactions in cellular respiration during which 1 molecule of glucose, a 6-carbon compound, is transformed into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid, a 3-carbon compound
specialized cell in the epidermis of plants that controls the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
relatively constant internal physical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
when comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in this usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.
The major sites of photosynthesis in most plants.
cell organelle that breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
thin layer of tissue that covers a surface, lines a cavity, or divides a space or organ
tiny rods of the protein actin that typically form mesh-works or bundles
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube-like structure
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
nuclear membrane (nuclear envelope)
A double lipid bilayer membrane made of lipids and encloses the nucleus. It encases the genetic material in eukaryotic cells.
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes
structure that contains the cell's genetic material in the form of DNA
specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell
An individual living thing
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
a lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
A process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light and energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy-rich carbohydrates, such as sugars and starches.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the internal structure of thinly sectioned specimens.
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to scan the surface of a sample, coated with metal atoms, to study details of its topography.
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
small, circular piece of DNA located in the cytoplasm of many bacteria
unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell; the site of protein synthesis
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Cell theory states
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells are produced from existing cells