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A consensus that rehabilitation, as a correctional philosophy, had failed emerged in:

The 1970s

Correctional population growth continued throughout the 1990s, even though crime rates:


The U.S. imprisonment rate has been growing steadily for

35 years

There is a growing sense that the U.S. penal system:

has grown too much

Corrections ideally serves which goal(s)?

Both protection and punishment

Corrections has a(n) ___ relationship with its environment.


Which of the following countries has the highest incarceration rate in the world?

The United States

The nature of corrections is such that it can be very difficult to receive useful:


As systems grow and mature, they become:

more complex

Which system of government divides power between federal and state governments?


___ is a method of applying scientific knowledge to practical purposes in a particular field.


Because correctional workers work directly with people, they have been referred to as:

street-level bureaucrats

Interdependence between staff and offenders is considered:


The following is an example of corporal punishment:


Until the Middle Ages prison was for:


The penitentiary was developed during the:


Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?

Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.
an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.
and punishment needs to be proportionate.

The belief that a punishment inflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain inflicted is called:


The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as:


During the Age of Reason, which of the following concepts dominated social and political thinking?

Liberalism, Rationality and Equality

The period known as the Enlightenment had what effect(s) on society?

It brought a reaction against feudal society and the monopoly of religion.
It stressed the notion of equality for all citizens.
It was largely influenced by the growth of scientific thinking.

For the purpose of deterrence, which principle(s) did Beccaria believe were most important?

Both swiftness and certainty

Wergild was gradually replaced because:

All of these:
Citizens wronged by offenders demanded that fairness required some form of retaliation; as a result, wergild was soon replaced by the principle of lex talionis.

The use of capital punishment increased so dramatically that wergild was no longer needed, since most offenders would receive a death sentence.

of the view that the peace of society required the public to participate in determining guilt or innocence and in exacting a penalty.

As a social institution, corrections reflects the vision and concerns of the:

larger community

Legal sanctions, in the form we are familiar with today, emerged in the:


The response to crime was viewed as essentially a private affair prior to the ___ century?


___ was a leader of reform in England and the developer of a utilitarian approach to crime and punishment.

Jeremy Bentham

The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was:

the church

The law of the civil society as distinguished from church law is known as:

secular law

Benefit of clergy was extended to:

all literate persons

The ___ was born out of concern for the sinfulness of sloth.


The country that gave the world its first penitentiary is:

The United States

In new England, the Puritans maintained a society governed by what type of principles?


Until the early 1800s most Americans lived:


The ___ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.

separate confinement system

the "congregate" system of prison discipline was first instituted at the:

Auburn Penitentiary

The first institution to embody the principles of the Cincinnati Prison Congress was:

Elmira reformatory

With the rise of the medical model, the emphasis in corrections shifted to:

the treatment of criminals

Between 1790 and 1830, the population in urban America had:

sharply increased

During the 19th century, American society became increasingly:


Separate confinement was first implemented in:

Walnut Street Jail

The penitentiary was to be a place where:

All of these:

offenders were isolated from bad influences in society.

offenders were isolated from one another.

Where offenders could reflect on their misdeeds.

The opening of Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 marked the full development of the:

the separate confinement system

The "Black Codes" emerged after the:

Civil War

In the convict lease system, prisoners are:

used for labor by private interests

Americans challenged government institutions dealing with education, mental health, juvenile delinquency, and adult corrections in the:

1960s & 1970s

An institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each other so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is the:


The ___ approach to criminology is based on the assumption that human behavior is a product of biological, economic, psychological, and social factors, and that the scientific method can be applied to ascertain the causes of individual behavior.

Positivist School

The leasing of convicts to private entrepreneurs took hold in the:


Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become:

All of these:

financially burdened

The concept of deterrence is founded on:


the concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that:

a small number of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate number of violent and property crimes.

With reference to time, rehabilitation is:

future oriented

The goal of rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the ___ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.


According to Herbert Packer, which of the following is not an element of punishment?

a dominant purpose to prevent further offenses or to inflict pain on the offender.

According to Clear, Cole, and Reisig, ___ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system.


Experts usually cite ___ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.

All of these:

plea bargaining pressures
community pressure
eyewitness error

___ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished.


According to the concept of ___, offenders are returned to society once they are cured.


Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of offenses by others is known as:

general deterrence

Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detention in prison, is:


Punishment designed to repair damage to both victim and community is:

restorative justice

Sentencing guidelines are designed to:

give judges a grab bag of sentencing options

Punishments less severe than prison but more restrictive than traditional probation are:

intermediate sanctions

In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:


restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?

Victim and community

Divergence in the lengths and types of sentences imposed for the same crime or crimes of comparable seriousness when no reasonable justification can be discerned is:

sentencing disparity

A writ of habeas corpus requests an examination of the legality of ___


Money or other compensation is awarded to a plaintiff in a civil action when the person sued has:

civil liabilty

The Military Commissions Act (MCA) ___ the ability of "unlawful enemy combatants" to file a writ of habeas corpus.


Which of the following has not been legally recognized by the Supreme Court as justifying abridgments of an inmate's constitutional rights?

The maintenance of stable prison populations

In instances when parole supervision is being revoked, offenders possess various ___ rights.

due process

Which court decision held that the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?

Wolff v. McDonnell

Prior to the 1960s courts maintained a/an ___ with respect to corrections.

hands off policy

The circumstances in a correctional facility that, when considered as a whole, may violate the protections guaranteed by the Eighth Amendment, are known as:

totality of the conditions

The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in:


The Anti-terrorism Act imposes ___ limit to file a federal habeas petition.

a one year

Legal rules, usually set by an agency of the executive branch, designed to implement policies of that agency are called:


Until the 1970s when the courts got involved, penal institutions in most states

did not provide prison law libraries

The first successful prisoners' rights case involved:

brutality and physical conditions

On entering a correctional institution, prisoners surrender most, but not all, of their rights under which Amendment?


The totality of conditions may be legally interpreted as:

cruel and unusual punishment

The equal protection clause is found in which Amendment?


One of the ways a corrections staff member can insulate themselves against civil lawsuits is to:

All of these:

keep good records
get a mentor
follow institutional procedures

African Americans make up less than one seventh of the U.S. population but nearly ___ of the accused and convicted people in the justice system.

one half

The ___ offender is most likely to be the object of exploitation and practical jokes while incarcerated

mentally handicapped

According to your text, situational offenders pose many problems for the correctional system. Which of the following has been identified as a problem with this offender?

They are extremely difficult to rehabilitate.

Half of those entering state prisons are ___ years old.

between 18 and 27

A person who has committed a sexual act prohibited by law is known as a:

sex offender

the drug abuser presents ___ problems for corrections

both treatment and management

The treatment program that has consistently proven to be successful for the alcohol abuser in general population but less successful for those in the correctional population is:

alcoholics anonymous

It is well known that the distinction between the psychopath and career criminal is that:

the psychopath is motivated by a lack of attachment to rules or people.

The decision to ___ is a factor influencing the filtering process:

grant bail

The most slippery concept in the classification of offenders is that of the:

career criminal

In classifying offenders, correctional administrators put them into groups based on:

All of these:

their needs for treatment
security issues they pose to the prison

One key method shown to prevent AIDS transmission is through:


Through its everyday policies, the criminal justice system concentrates on:

All of these:

the poor
the young
persons of color

most people would hardly call their own job a ___ if they had been seen at work only three or four times


In recent years, America's prison population has been:


more prisoners serve ___ sentences in the United States than in any other Western nation.


Which of the following pressures are not experienced by the local jail?

Local offender assistance programs are usually operated by community self help volunteers

According to the text, the central purpose of the early jail was:

to make sure those accused of a crime would show up for their trials.

A system where jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day is:

a fee system

The nation has just over ___ jails.


According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:

both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.

A common strategy in dealing with offenders with substance dependency problems is:

both release to an addiction treatment facility and placement in a methadone maintenance program.

By far the most successful pretrial release program is:

release on recognizance (ROR)

Many have argued against preventive detention. Which is not one of the arguments?

It is typically employed only against property offenders.

Many argue in favor of pretrial diversion. Which of the following is not one of those arguments?

Many offenders cannot be effectively dealt with by the formal criminal justice system.

According to the authors, which of the following is of particular importance for today's jails?

legal liability

___ are direct descendants of 12th century English feudal practices.

bail processes

Violence, rape, and health problems are direct and immediate consequences of:


Jails are administered by:

locally elected officials

A nationwide census of jails was not done until:


The jail rate is highest in the:

West and South

More than half of all jail occupants are:

awaiting trial

The average delay between arrest and sentencing is

six months

Many, if not most, defendants are:


What is the average caseload for probation officers in New York City?

162 probationers per officer

Probation was originally used mainly for:

first time offenders

The majority of probationers in the United States are:

white and male

___ is a drug that inhibits drinking.


Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?

All of these:

Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the times

It is able to train staff for a variety of roles

It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and services.

In what case did the Supreme Court rule that the defendant does not have a right to receive a copy of the pre-sentence investigation report?

Williams v. New York

A probation officer faces role conflict everyday. This conflict focuses around:

the responsibilities of enforcing the law and helping the offender simultaneously.

In which of the following ways may probation be terminated?

both the probationer completes the period of probation and the probationer commits some misbehavior that warrants the probation be terminated.

Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?

Home detention

Judicial reprieve in the United States:

was declared unconstitutional in 1916

Recent interest in the problem of substance abuse has increased the attention given to ___ affected by drugs and alcohol.


The approved practice for handling revocation of probation:

proceeds in three stages.

If the idea is to help people turn their lives around, in most cases there are far ___ choices


Over ___ dollars a year are spent on corrections.

60 billion

Movement within the continuum of sanctions is contingent upon:

performance at each level of sentencing accountability.

A ___ condition establishes a sum of money that must be paid by the offender either to the victim or to a public fund for victims of crime.


Studies of community service and restitution programs have generally found them vulnerable to:

the problem of net widening

Early evaluations of intensive supervision reflect which of the following?

More technical violations occur than with traditional probation

Proponents of boot camps argue that young offenders get involved in crime because:

they lack self esteem

What group(s) is/are affected by the bias that can be present in selecting intermediate sanctions for offenders?

both non-whites and women

Americans have traditionally tended to equate which of the following most with punishment?


The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called

intermediate sanctions

Home confinement is best suited to:

low-risk offenders with relatively stable residences

More than two thirds of people under correctional authority are:

under community supervision

Judges sometimes complain that their sentencing choices are:


Over ___ dollars in fines is collected annually in the United States.

one billion

Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:

ISP (Intensive Supervision Probation)

Because intermediate sanctions rely on discretion there is an opportunity for:


Jails are an important part of corrections and demonstrate many complexities of the system.


Prison is inexpensive.


A day fine lets the wealthier offenders off easier than it does the poor.


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