How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

250 terms

Corrections final study guide

previous test questions
A consensus that rehabilitation, as a correctional philosophy, had failed emerged in:
The 1970s
Correctional population growth continued throughout the 1990s, even though crime rates:
The U.S. imprisonment rate has been growing steadily for
35 years
There is a growing sense that the U.S. penal system:
has grown too much
Corrections ideally serves which goal(s)?
Both protection and punishment
Corrections has a(n) ___ relationship with its environment.
Which of the following countries has the highest incarceration rate in the world?
The United States
The nature of corrections is such that it can be very difficult to receive useful:
As systems grow and mature, they become:
more complex
Which system of government divides power between federal and state governments?
___ is a method of applying scientific knowledge to practical purposes in a particular field.
Because correctional workers work directly with people, they have been referred to as:
street-level bureaucrats
Interdependence between staff and offenders is considered:
The following is an example of corporal punishment:
Until the Middle Ages prison was for:
The penitentiary was developed during the:
Lex talionis embodies which of the following principles?
Punishment should correspond in degree and kind to the offense.
an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth is legal punishment.
and punishment needs to be proportionate.
The belief that a punishment inflicted on an offender must achieve enough good to outweigh the pain inflicted is called:
The practice of removing offenders from the community to another land was known as:
During the Age of Reason, which of the following concepts dominated social and political thinking?
Liberalism, Rationality and Equality
The period known as the Enlightenment had what effect(s) on society?
It brought a reaction against feudal society and the monopoly of religion.
It stressed the notion of equality for all citizens.
It was largely influenced by the growth of scientific thinking.
For the purpose of deterrence, which principle(s) did Beccaria believe were most important?
Both swiftness and certainty
Wergild was gradually replaced because:
All of these:
Citizens wronged by offenders demanded that fairness required some form of retaliation; as a result, wergild was soon replaced by the principle of lex talionis.

The use of capital punishment increased so dramatically that wergild was no longer needed, since most offenders would receive a death sentence.

of the view that the peace of society required the public to participate in determining guilt or innocence and in exacting a penalty.
As a social institution, corrections reflects the vision and concerns of the:
larger community
Legal sanctions, in the form we are familiar with today, emerged in the:
The response to crime was viewed as essentially a private affair prior to the ___ century?
___ was a leader of reform in England and the developer of a utilitarian approach to crime and punishment.
Jeremy Bentham
The dominant social institution during the Middle Ages in England and Europe was:
the church
The law of the civil society as distinguished from church law is known as:
secular law
Benefit of clergy was extended to:
all literate persons
The ___ was born out of concern for the sinfulness of sloth.
The country that gave the world its first penitentiary is:
The United States
In new England, the Puritans maintained a society governed by what type of principles?
Until the early 1800s most Americans lived:
The ___ was a penitentiary system developed in Pennsylvania in which each inmate was held in isolation from other inmates.
separate confinement system
the "congregate" system of prison discipline was first instituted at the:
Auburn Penitentiary
The first institution to embody the principles of the Cincinnati Prison Congress was:
Elmira reformatory
With the rise of the medical model, the emphasis in corrections shifted to:
the treatment of criminals
Between 1790 and 1830, the population in urban America had:
sharply increased
During the 19th century, American society became increasingly:
Separate confinement was first implemented in:
Walnut Street Jail
The penitentiary was to be a place where:
All of these:

offenders were isolated from bad influences in society.

offenders were isolated from one another.

Where offenders could reflect on their misdeeds.
The opening of Eastern State Penitentiary in 1829 marked the full development of the:
the separate confinement system
The "Black Codes" emerged after the:
Civil War
In the convict lease system, prisoners are:
used for labor by private interests
Americans challenged government institutions dealing with education, mental health, juvenile delinquency, and adult corrections in the:
1960s & 1970s
An institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each other so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is the:
The ___ approach to criminology is based on the assumption that human behavior is a product of biological, economic, psychological, and social factors, and that the scientific method can be applied to ascertain the causes of individual behavior.
Positivist School
The leasing of convicts to private entrepreneurs took hold in the:
Within 40 years of being built, penitentiaries had become:
All of these:

financially burdened
The concept of deterrence is founded on:
the concept of selective incapacitation rests on the idea that:
a small number of offenders are responsible for a disproportionate number of violent and property crimes.
With reference to time, rehabilitation is:
future oriented
The goal of rehabilitation is oriented solely toward the ___ and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime.
According to Herbert Packer, which of the following is not an element of punishment?
a dominant purpose to prevent further offenses or to inflict pain on the offender.
According to Clear, Cole, and Reisig, ___ is the most visible penalty imposed by the criminal justice system.
Experts usually cite ___ as reasons wrongful convictions occur.
All of these:

plea bargaining pressures
community pressure
eyewitness error
___ asserts that a person who has infringed the rights of others deserves to be penalized or punished.
According to the concept of ___, offenders are returned to society once they are cured.
Punishment of criminals that is intended to be an example to the public and to discourage the commission of offenses by others is known as:
general deterrence
Depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by detention in prison, is:
Punishment designed to repair damage to both victim and community is:
restorative justice
Sentencing guidelines are designed to:
give judges a grab bag of sentencing options
Punishments less severe than prison but more restrictive than traditional probation are:
intermediate sanctions
In the Booker decision, the justices said that sentencing guidelines are:
restorative justice sees crime as a violation against which of the following?
Victim and community
Divergence in the lengths and types of sentences imposed for the same crime or crimes of comparable seriousness when no reasonable justification can be discerned is:
sentencing disparity
A writ of habeas corpus requests an examination of the legality of ___
Money or other compensation is awarded to a plaintiff in a civil action when the person sued has:
civil liabilty
The Military Commissions Act (MCA) ___ the ability of "unlawful enemy combatants" to file a writ of habeas corpus.
Which of the following has not been legally recognized by the Supreme Court as justifying abridgments of an inmate's constitutional rights?
The maintenance of stable prison populations
In instances when parole supervision is being revoked, offenders possess various ___ rights.
due process
Which court decision held that the basic elements of procedural due process must be present when decisions are made concerning the disciplining of an inmate?
Wolff v. McDonnell
Prior to the 1960s courts maintained a/an ___ with respect to corrections.
hands off policy
The circumstances in a correctional facility that, when considered as a whole, may violate the protections guaranteed by the Eighth Amendment, are known as:
totality of the conditions
The Fourteenth Amendment was ratified in:
The Anti-terrorism Act imposes ___ limit to file a federal habeas petition.
a one year
Legal rules, usually set by an agency of the executive branch, designed to implement policies of that agency are called:
Until the 1970s when the courts got involved, penal institutions in most states
did not provide prison law libraries
The first successful prisoners' rights case involved:
brutality and physical conditions
On entering a correctional institution, prisoners surrender most, but not all, of their rights under which Amendment?
The totality of conditions may be legally interpreted as:
cruel and unusual punishment
The equal protection clause is found in which Amendment?
One of the ways a corrections staff member can insulate themselves against civil lawsuits is to:
All of these:

keep good records
get a mentor
follow institutional procedures
African Americans make up less than one seventh of the U.S. population but nearly ___ of the accused and convicted people in the justice system.
one half
The ___ offender is most likely to be the object of exploitation and practical jokes while incarcerated
mentally handicapped
According to your text, situational offenders pose many problems for the correctional system. Which of the following has been identified as a problem with this offender?
They are extremely difficult to rehabilitate.
Half of those entering state prisons are ___ years old.
between 18 and 27
A person who has committed a sexual act prohibited by law is known as a:
sex offender
the drug abuser presents ___ problems for corrections
both treatment and management
The treatment program that has consistently proven to be successful for the alcohol abuser in general population but less successful for those in the correctional population is:
alcoholics anonymous
It is well known that the distinction between the psychopath and career criminal is that:
the psychopath is motivated by a lack of attachment to rules or people.
The decision to ___ is a factor influencing the filtering process:
grant bail
The most slippery concept in the classification of offenders is that of the:
career criminal
In classifying offenders, correctional administrators put them into groups based on:
All of these:

their needs for treatment
security issues they pose to the prison
One key method shown to prevent AIDS transmission is through:
Through its everyday policies, the criminal justice system concentrates on:
All of these:

the poor
the young
persons of color
most people would hardly call their own job a ___ if they had been seen at work only three or four times
In recent years, America's prison population has been:
more prisoners serve ___ sentences in the United States than in any other Western nation.
Which of the following pressures are not experienced by the local jail?
Local offender assistance programs are usually operated by community self help volunteers
According to the text, the central purpose of the early jail was:
to make sure those accused of a crime would show up for their trials.
A system where jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day is:
a fee system
The nation has just over ___ jails.
According to your text, jail suicides are primarily caused by:
both the crisis nature of arrest and detention and emotional instability.
A common strategy in dealing with offenders with substance dependency problems is:
both release to an addiction treatment facility and placement in a methadone maintenance program.
By far the most successful pretrial release program is:
release on recognizance (ROR)
Many have argued against preventive detention. Which is not one of the arguments?
It is typically employed only against property offenders.
Many argue in favor of pretrial diversion. Which of the following is not one of those arguments?
Many offenders cannot be effectively dealt with by the formal criminal justice system.
According to the authors, which of the following is of particular importance for today's jails?
legal liability
___ are direct descendants of 12th century English feudal practices.
bail processes
Violence, rape, and health problems are direct and immediate consequences of:
Jails are administered by:
locally elected officials
A nationwide census of jails was not done until:
The jail rate is highest in the:
West and South
More than half of all jail occupants are:
awaiting trial
The average delay between arrest and sentencing is
six months
Many, if not most, defendants are:
What is the average caseload for probation officers in New York City?
162 probationers per officer
Probation was originally used mainly for:
first time offenders
The majority of probationers in the United States are:
white and male
___ is a drug that inhibits drinking.
Which of the following is an argument for a centralized probation authority?
All of these:

Decentralized programs are often unprofessional and lag behind the times

It is able to train staff for a variety of roles

It is able to implement broader program with greater equality in supervision and services.
In what case did the Supreme Court rule that the defendant does not have a right to receive a copy of the pre-sentence investigation report?
Williams v. New York
A probation officer faces role conflict everyday. This conflict focuses around:
the responsibilities of enforcing the law and helping the offender simultaneously.
In which of the following ways may probation be terminated?
both the probationer completes the period of probation and the probationer commits some misbehavior that warrants the probation be terminated.
Which of the following was not an innovation initially developed by John Augustus?
Home detention
Judicial reprieve in the United States:
was declared unconstitutional in 1916
Recent interest in the problem of substance abuse has increased the attention given to ___ affected by drugs and alcohol.
The approved practice for handling revocation of probation:
proceeds in three stages.
If the idea is to help people turn their lives around, in most cases there are far ___ choices
Over ___ dollars a year are spent on corrections.
60 billion
Movement within the continuum of sanctions is contingent upon:
performance at each level of sentencing accountability.
A ___ condition establishes a sum of money that must be paid by the offender either to the victim or to a public fund for victims of crime.
Studies of community service and restitution programs have generally found them vulnerable to:
the problem of net widening
Early evaluations of intensive supervision reflect which of the following?
More technical violations occur than with traditional probation
Proponents of boot camps argue that young offenders get involved in crime because:
they lack self esteem
What group(s) is/are affected by the bias that can be present in selecting intermediate sanctions for offenders?
both non-whites and women
Americans have traditionally tended to equate which of the following most with punishment?
The new movement that seeks to establish correctional programs falling between standard probation and prison is called
intermediate sanctions
Home confinement is best suited to:
low-risk offenders with relatively stable residences
More than two thirds of people under correctional authority are:
under community supervision
Judges sometimes complain that their sentencing choices are:
Over ___ dollars in fines is collected annually in the United States.
one billion
Probation granted under conditions of strict reporting to a probation officer with a limited caseload is known as:
ISP (Intensive Supervision Probation)
Because intermediate sanctions rely on discretion there is an opportunity for:
Jails are an important part of corrections and demonstrate many complexities of the system.
Prison is inexpensive.
A day fine lets the wealthier offenders off easier than it does the poor.
In many states the corrections budget is higher than the education budget.
Of the 7 million adults under correctional supervision in the United States, about ___ are in jails and prisons
2.25 million
93 percent of the adult prison population is:
America's oldest prison, New Jersey's State Prison in Trenton, opened in:
Big houses predominated in much of the country during the:
first half of the 20th century
The ___ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s.
In the wake of the Civil rights Movement, prisoners demanded their constitutional rights as:
At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:
crime control
Most prisons employ a ___ model
Prisons are operated by:
All of these:

the federal government
all 50 states
private companies
As state's deal with severe budgetary problems the future of private prisons is:
Today's prison construction is greatly influenced by:
The cost of maintaining a(n) ___ inmate is much higher than costs associated with other incarcerated populations.
The rate of confirmed AIDS cases in state and federal prisons is ___ in the total U.S. population.
2.5 times higher
Rates of HIV infection are higher in ___ prisons.
According to sociologists, the "big house" conception of the American prison has:
clouded our understanding of the contemporary prison.
A majority of all state prisoners throughout the country are housed in ___ prisons.
medium security
With the correctional focus shifting to crime control, some believe that offenders have had it too soft, resulting in:
All of these:

the institution of strict regimes in prisons.
the removal of educational and recreational amenities from prisons.
an increase in the number of people in prison.
Responsibility of housing federal pretrial detainees belongs to:
the U.S. Marshal's Service
The general rule of architecture, including prisons, is that form follows:
Prisons designed to hold the "toughest of the tough" are called:
super-max prisons
Private enterprise has ___ played a role in American corrections.
The growth rate in the number of incarcerated women:
exceeds that of men
In comparison to men's facilities, women's prisons have:
less programming
Until 1870 women inmates were generally treated:
the same as men
The children of imprisoned mothers are allowed overnight visits
in a few states
no distinctive correctional model for women has arisen since the:
Inside women's facilities there has been a recent escalation of:
sexual misconduct by male officers
When compared to men, the offenses women commit are usually
less serious
Traditionally, women have received ___ treatment from judges.
In 1844, the ___ was created with the goal of improving the treatment of female prisoners and separating them from male prisoners.
Women's Prison Association
Which of the following is not an advantage to the families formed by female inmates?
They provide administrators with greater control
Generally, women's prisons lack not only adequate vocational and educational programs but also:
All of these:

nutritional services
recreational services
medical services
The justification for the lack of diverse educational, vocational, and other programs to incarcerated women is that:
there is a relatively small number of women in prison and jail.
Elizabeth Farnham, head matron of the women's wing at Sing Sing from 1844 -1848, tried to implement reform ideas for female prisoners and
was thwarted by male overseers and legislators
Historically, convicted females were thought to:
be difficult to reform since they had gone against their nature.
Social relationships in women's prison appear:
more voluntary than in male prisons
When women are released to the community, many must deal with which of the following?
All of these:

Being poor
Regaining custody of children
Drug addiction
The decision to release an inmate is made in the context of:
competing goals
From 1920 to 1973 sentencing and release procedures involved:
indeterminate sentences
Parole is understood as:
conditional release
Currently, what percent of felons are released on parole and remain under correctional supervision for a specific period
about 77 percent
After an inmate has served time equal to the total sentence minus "good time," if any, he or she will receive:
mandatory release
A parole board organized inside a department of corrections is an example of a/an ___ parole board.
One of the consequences of discretionary parole is:
All of these:

it leaves prisoners in limbo
prisoners have few due process rights at the hearing
decisions are made outside of the public's attention
Which of the following is an impact of release mechanisms?
All of these:

They can shorten a sentence imposed by a judge

They encourage plea bargaining

They mitigate the harshness of the penal code
___ is based on the assumptions of indeterminate sentences and rehabilitative programs.
Discretionary release
More than ___ adult felons leave state and federal prisons each year.
With the increase of the prison population the percentage of parolees has:
Parole evolved during the:
19th century
According to inmates, if you want to be paroled you've got to:
be in a program
Those with a felony conviction are not allowed to vote. This is referred to as:
To define race as a biological concept that divides mankind into categories related to skin color and other physical features has often resulted in:
a great deal of controversy in both political and social arenas
The fact that African Americans and Latinos are subjected to the criminal justice system at considerably higher rates than other ethnic and racial groups is:
In terms of culture, the United States is:
a mosaic
When groups are deferentially treated without regard to their behavior or qualifications, ___ occurs.
The argument that African Americans are more criminal than whites by nature:
is not sustained by the evidence
Many observers believe that the relationship between racism and the criminal justice system is:
The gap between unemployment rates for African American men and every other group in society grows when:
men who are behind bars are released
___ adults have committed a serious offense in their lifetime.
The victim's perception of the race of the offender
has influence over sentencing
A consequence of the view of differential criminality would be that:
the view is vulnerable to charges of racism and it would mean the creation of a "criminal class" of people who are dangerous.
Which of the following contribute to high rates of incarceration of African Americans?
All of these:

drug sentences
Criminal justice officials make a variety of decisions that disadvantage minority males. These include:
All of these

where police patrol
the cost of bail
the ability to hire a private attorney
The problem of dis-proportionality is ___ if the problem is not racist people but disadvantageous rules and practices.
more complicated
Recent sociological studies have demonstrated that:
employers are both hesitant to hire young men who have been in prison and are more likely to do a background check on young African American men.
The high percentage of young African American men behind bars results in their:
All of these:

lack of earning a wage
not being able to parent children
not being able to support their partners
Prison surpassed college as a place for young African American men after:
No one can dispute the ___ impact of the prison system's growth on young men of color.
African Americans make up 40 percent of the prison population but _____ of all U.S. residents.
13 percent
If current rates of incarceration continue, nearly ___ of African American children born today will go to prison
one third
One in three African American men are:
under correctional supervision
Patterns of disproportionate representation in the criminal justice system:
start with juveniles
In the everyday thinking of many Americans, crime is a ___ phenomenon.
Self report studies show that ___ have committed a crime.
most people
It is estimated that ___ African American men are permanently banned from voting.
1.4 million
The belief that executions of wrongdoers deters others from committing the crime reflects:
a utilitarian belief
The belief that one who takes another's life deserves a punishment equal to the victim's fate:
is a moral argument
Opponents of the death penalty argue that only ___ has the right to take a life:
Opponents of capital punishment argue that:
All of these:

There is no evidence that it deters violent crime.
Many killers are unable to control themselves.
Killers do not consider the threat of capital punishment when they commit the crime.
Supporters of capital punishment argue that it will:
All of these:

Dissuade others from wrongdoing.
Realize justice for the victim.
Keep the offender from committing further crimes.
Studies show that the public:
opinion depends on the wording of the questions asked
Mark Costanzo found that the public ___ when people can choose between life without parole and death.
is equally split
Current case law indicates that capital punishment is legal:
as long as it's imposed fairly
In Ford v. Wainwright the Supreme Court ruled that ___ should not be executed.
the insane
Who gets the death penalty is a result of:
prosecutorial discretion
It took approximately how long for Angel Diaz to die by lethal injection in Florida:
30 minutes
Until the mid 1700s criminal punishment in Europe and American colonies focused on the offender's
Executions, in most parts of the country, were carried out in public until the:
After 1935 the number of executions began to:
The number of states without the death penalty has ___ in recent years:
Since 1976 the number of people facing the death penalty has:
Analysts argue that public opinion for the death penalty is:
somewhat confusing
In other western democracies the death penalty has been:
The latest attempt to impose capital punishment in a way that does not offend modern cultural sensibilities is:
lethal injection
To ensure thorough deliberation before imposing the death sentence, legislatures enacted:
a two stage process
Research shows that the death penalty is more likely to be imposed when:
the victim is white
In Atkins v. Virginia the Supreme Court ruled that:
executing the mentally retarded is unconstitutional
In which case was it ruled that offenders can not receive the death sentence if they were under 18 at the time of the crime?
Roper v. Simmons
Consular officials must be notified when
a foreign national is arrested
Of the 22,000 arrests for murder and non negligent manslaughter, fewer than ___ receive the death penalty.