28 terms

Campbell Essential Biology Chapter 3

Ch 3: the molecules of life
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Terms in this set (...)

Organic Compounds
Carbon based molecules.
Hydrocarbon
Organic molecule composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Macromolecules
Large organic molecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Monomer
Small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers.
Polymer
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
Dehydration Synthesis
Links molecules together by the removal of a water molecule., takes out H2O to stick things together.
Hydrolysis
A chemical reaction in which water is used to break bonds- the opposite of a dehydration reaction.
Carbohydrates
A class of molecules that includes sugars and polymers of sugars. In animals and plants it is the primary source of energy. In plants it serves as building material for the plant body.
Monosaccharide
A simple sugars that are the monomers of carbohydrates. They cannot be broken down into smaller sugars.
Example of a monosaccharide
Glucose (sports drinks) and Fructose (fruits).
Polysaccharides
Complex carbohydrates; made of long chains of linked sugar units; polymers of monosaccharides.
Examples of polysaccharides
Starch, glycogen, cellulose.
Starch
Polysaccharide used by plants to store excess glucose (Potatoes, wheat, corn, rice).
Glycogen
Used by animals cells to store energy. Converted to glucose when it is needed. Branched chains of sugars that break down slowly.
Cellulose
Forms strong fibers in plant cells. Cannot be broken apart by most animals.
Lipids
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes.
Hydrophobic
Unable to mix with water- "water fearing".
Hydrophilic
Able to mix with water- "water loving".
Nucleic Acids
Macromolecules that store information and provide the instructions for and aid in the building of proteins.
Nucleotides
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
Proteins
Contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. Needed by cells for repair and growth. Made up of amino acids.
Amino Acid
Consist of a central carbon atom bonded to a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group (−COOH), an amino group (−NH2), and a R-group.
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Digestion
The process that breaks down food into small molecules that can be absorbed by blood.
Uses of carbohydrates
Dietary energy, energy storage, plant structure (cellulose).
Uses of lipids
Long term energy storage, insulation and hormones.
Uses of nucleic acids
Build DNA and RNA for new cells and protein synthesis.
Uses of protein
Enzymes, cell structure, storage, contraction and transport.