64 terms

Biology Concept and Connections Chapter 3

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covalent bonding
results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms
octet rule
elements that are not hydrogen or helium want 8 valence (outside) electrons
organic compound
a compound that contains carbon
functional group
a group of atoms bonded together in an organic molecule that gives specific reactive properties to the molecule
hydroxyl group
a functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom; -OH
carbonyl group
a functional group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom
carboxyl group
a functional group consisting of a carbon double-bonded to an oxygen and also bonded to a hydroxyl group; -COOH
amino group
a functional group composed of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; NH2
phosphate group
a functional group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
polymers
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers covalently joined in a chain
monomers
building blocks of polymers
dehydration synthesis
condensation reaction where molecules are connected by loss of a water molecule.
hydrolysis
adds water to molecule to break bond
opposite of dehydration
carbohydrate
a class of molecules ranging from the small sugar molecules dissolved in soft drinks to the large polysaccharides
monosaccharides
carbohydrate monomers
one sugar (glucose, fructose, etc.)
two of them make disaccharide
simple sugars
disaccharides
two monosaccharides brought together by a dehydration reaction
sucrose, lactose, maltose
polysaccharides
polymers of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reactions
complex carbohydrates
starch
storage polysaccharide in plants
glycogen
excess sugar stored by animals in form of glucose polysaccharide
cellulose
polysaccharide consisting of glucose monomers that reinforces plant-cell walls
lipids
diverse compounds that mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds; mainly used for storing energy; found in fatty foods
triglyceride
main component of body fat; any of a group of fats containing three fatty acids
phospholipids
main component of cell membranes; consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
waxes
type of lipid; consist of one fatty acid linked to an alcohol
steroids
lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
saturated fat
solid at room temp.
all single bonds
used by bodies and animals to store energy
unsaturated fat
liquid at room temp.
at least one double bond
found in plants and fruits
protein
a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers
enzymes
the chemical catalysts that speed and regulate all chemical reactions in cells
amino acids
an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as monomers for proteins
polypeptide
a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
peptide bonds
the covalent linkage between two amino acid units in a polypeptide; formed by a dehydration reaction
denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor; affects function
primary structure
sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
contains beta pleated sheets and alpha helixes; held together by hydrogen bonds
tertiary structure
the structure of a protein that occurs due to interactions between R groups
quaternary structure
the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
nucleic acids
hold genetic code of proteins
made of nucleotides
ex. DNA and RNA
chitin
external skeleton in bugs
glycerol
A three-carbon alcohol to which fatty acids are covalently bonded to make fats and oils.
fatty acid
hydrocarbon chain often bonded to glycerol in a lipid
hydrophobic
tending to repel or fail to mix with water.
hydrophilic
having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
dipeptide
a molecule consisting of two amino acids
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; sends signals to proteins on how to form and arrange themselves
RNA
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid present in all living cells; translates DNA's instructions
nucleotides
basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases
adenine
pairs with thymine
thymine
pairs with adenine
cytosine
pairs with guanine
guanine
pairs with cytosine
uracil
replaces thymine in RNA; pairs with adenine
double helix
the coiled structure of double-stranded DNA molecule; each base pair forms a hydrogen bond
what roles do complementary base pairing play in the functioning of nucleic acid?
complimentary base pairing makes possible the precise replication of DNA, ensuring that genetic information is faithfully transmitted every time a cell divides. It also ensures that RNA molecules carry accurate instructions for the synthesis of proteins.
how are the two types of nucleic acids functionally related?
The hereditary material of DNA contains the instructions for the primary structure of polypeptides. RNA is the intermediary that conveys those instructions to the protein-making machinery that assembles amino acids in the designated order.
if a genetic mutation changes the primary structure of a protein, how might this destroy the protein's function?
Primary structure, the amino acid sequence, affects the secondary structure, which affects the tertiary structure, which affects the quaternary structure. Thus the primary structure determines the shape of a protein , and the function of a protein depends on its shape. A shape change could eliminate function.
why does a denatured protein no longer function normally?
The function of each protein is a consequence of its specific shape, which is lost when a protein denatures.
In what way is the production of a dipeptide similar to the production of a disaccharide?
In both cases, the monomers are joined by a dehydration reaction.
how are dietary fats and anabolic steroids similar?
Both fats and steroids are lipids, grouped together because they are hydrophobic molecules.
how do you think the structure of a monounsaturated fat differs from a polyunsaturated fat?
A monounsaturated fat has a patty acid with a single double bond it its carbon chain. A polyunsaturated fat has a fatty acid with several double bonds.
compare and contrast starch and cellulose, two plant polysaccharides?
Both are polymers of glucose but the bonds between glucose monomers have a different shape. Starch functions mainly for sugar storage. Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide that is the main material of plant cell walls.
How is high-fructose corn syrup made from corn?
Corn starch is hydrolyzed to glucose; then enzymes convert glucose to fructose. This fructose is combined with corn syrup to produce HFCS
Formula for Lactose
C12H22O11
Formula for a Monosaccharide that has 3 carbons
C3H6O3

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