Thinking About Psychology
Blair, Broeker, and Ernst
Terms in this set (...)
The place theory of hearing suggests that neurons fire from different parts of the:
A) eardrum B) cilia C) cochlea D) ossicles E) pinna
PLACE THEORY - our perception of sound depends on where each component frequency produces vibrations along the tympanic membrane, also known as the eardrum; a similar effect can be detected by hitting a tambourine in different spots, thus producing different sounds
What does perceptual constancy enable people to recognize?
A) figure-ground images B) color in low light C) that a bus driving toward you isn't getting bigger D) after images
C) that a bus driving toward you isn't getting bigger
PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY - perceiving objects as unchanging even as retinal images changes
This binocular cue allows us to perceive depth.
A) interposition B) retinal disparity C) linear perspective D) motion parallax
B) retinal disparity
RETINAL DISPARITY - one of the binocular cues that allows depth perception, convergence is another; by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance
What are feature detectors?
A) photo-receptors that enable people to see in color B) principles that people use to organize what they see into units that make sense C) neurons that respond to specific stimuli such as shapes, movement, and angles D) instruments used by psycho physicists to measure senses E) cells in the cochlea that convert vibrations into neural impulses
C) neurons that respond to specific stimuli such as shapes, movement. and angles
Without FEATURE DETECTORS in your brain it would be nearly impossible to detect an object, such as a baseball, hurling toward you at 90 miles per hour.
What sense, other than that of hearing, is located in your inner ear?
A) olfactory B) kinesthetic C) vestibular E) ESP
VESTIBULAR SENSE - the sense of body orientation with respect to gravity
You have just lifted a heavy box and carried it to the garage. You now pick up a box that's even heavier, but as you lift it doesn't feel heavier. This is due to:
A) the absolute sensory threshold B) sensory adaptation C) the Gestalt principle of continuity D) Weber's Law
D) Weber's Law
WEBER'S LAW - as stimulus increases, the amount of additional energy required to detect a change in the stimulus also increases
Which of the following best describes the relationship between sensation and perception?
A) sensation is a strictly mechanical process, whereas perception is a cognitive process B) perception is an advanced form of sensation C) sensation happens in the senses, perception happens in the brain D) sensation is detecting stimuli, perception is interpreting stimuli detected E) sensation involves learning and expectations, perception does not
D) sensation is detecting stimuli, perception is interpreting stimuli detected
SENSATION - the activation of our senses by stimuli
PERCEPTION- how we organize and interpret sensations
What function does the retina serve?
A) it contains the visual receptor cells B) it focuses light coming through the lens C) it determines how much light gets into the eye D) it determines which rods and cones are activated by incoming light E) it sends impulses to the left and right visual cortices
A) it contains the visual receptor cells
RETINA - back part of the eye where the rods and cones are located
An artist drawing a pencil sketch could use which of the following techniques to add depth to the drawing?
A) retinal disparity B) convergence C) closure D) olfaction E) linear perspective
E) linear perspective
Since a pencil drawing has only two dimensions, a monocular cue, such as LINEAR PERSPECTIVE, must be used to create the illusion of the third dimension of depth.
Because the two teams wore different colored uniforms, Michael perceived the ten basketball players as two distinct groups. This best illustrates the principle of:
A) proximity B) color consistency C) closure D) similarity E) convergence
SIMILARITY - One of the Gestalt principles of grouping; when objects look similar to one another, people often perceive them as a group or pattern.
Young children tend to draw human figures in a rather unrealistic way. This reflects their:
A) perceptual schemas B) retinal disparity processing C) selective attention to legs and feet D) selective attention to monocular cues
A) perceptual schemas
SCHEMA - a mental representation of what a situation or object is; young children often draw faces on unrealistic bodies, in part, because they rely on the face to recognize their caregivers
When most people stare at a red square and then shift their eyes to a white surface, the afterimage of the square is:
A) blue B) green C) yellow D) black
OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY - This theory of color vision says that color is processed in pairs (red-green, yellow-blue, and black-white.) Light that stimulates one half of the pair inhibits the other half.
The process by which our sensory systems convert stimulus energies into neural messages is called:
A) transduction B) priming C) accommodation D) sensory interaction E) parallel
TRANSDUCTION - the process of changing physical energy (sound waves, pressure, etc.) into electrical signals (neural impulses) that can make their way to the brain.
The four basic gustatory sensations that most animals possess are:
A) bitter, salty, tangy, sour B) salty, sweet, bitter, sour C) smooth, grainy, cold, hot D) grain, fruit, meat, vegetable E) salty, sharp, sour, bitter
B) salty, sweet, bitter, sour
The four GUSTATORY (taste) sensations that most animals can distinguish are SALTY, SWEET, BITTER, and SOUR. Humans have a fifth taste receptor that senses UMAMI (meaning "pleasant savory taste") which is present in foods such as mushrooms and ripe tomatoes.
The theory that best accounts for the experience of pain is:
A) opponent-process theory B) Weber's law C) the trichromatic theory D) the gate-control theory
D) the gate-control theory
GATE CONTROL THEORY states that people experience pain when pain messages can pass through the spinal cord by way of small nerve fibers (the open gate) that carry pain signals.
The knowledge that a round dinner plate may appear oval-shaped if viewed from a certain angle is an example of:
A) retinal disparity B) place theory C) shape constancy D) phi-phenomenon
C) shape constancy
SHAPE CONSTANCY allows us to perceive an object as having the same shape regardless of its orientation or the angle from which we view it.