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AP Human Geography - Unit 6 Vocabulary (2019 CED)
Terms in this set (53)
described as the characteristics of a place
location of a place relative to other places
the process of developing towns and cities that does not end once a city is formed
the process of people moving, usually from cities, to residential areas on the outskirts of cities
cities that exert influence far beyond their national boundaries; i.e. New York, London, Tokyo, and Paris
the world's largest cities and typically have more than ten million people
Law of the Primate City (Primate City)
if the largest city in an urban system is more than twice as large as the next largest city, the largest city is said to have primacy
places that are larger and closer together will have a greater interaction than places that are smaller and farther away from each other
the physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a city
urban walkability/walkable cities
a measure of the presence or absence and quality of footpaths, sidewalks or other pedestrian rights-of-way, traffic and road conditions, land use patterns, building accessibility, and safety, among other items.
mixed land use areas
neighborhoods that have a mix of homes and businesses (unlike zoning in most cities)
smart growth policies
set of policies to preserve farmland and other open, undeveloped spaces near a city
urban planning that hopes to reduce sprawl, increase affordable housing, and create vibrant, lively neighborhoods (largely walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods)
areas of undeveloped land around an urban area
urban communities where the planners have put into place smart growth initiatives to decrease the rate at which the city grows horizontally to avoid the adverse affects of sprawl
quantitative population information
statistical data that can be aggregated to make decisions- usually more objective data (#s speak for themselves- census/ survey)
qualitative data about urban change
an type of data that tries to show the unique perspectives and feelings of the individuals who are being studied- more personal data
discrimination in which an individual or family is treated unequally when trying to buy, rent, lease, sell or finance a home based on certain characteristics, such as race, class, sex, religion, national origin, and familial status
the extent to which something is affordable, as measured by its cost relative to the amount that the purchaser is able to pay
areas not connected to city services and under the control of drug lords and gangs
process of wealthier residents moving into a neighborhood and making it unaffordable for existing residents due to improved housing quality
zones of abandonment
areas that have been deserted in a city for economic or environmental reasons
the rapid spread of development outward from the inner city
visual reminders on the landscape of how the centers of cities have changed over time
urban zones that lack food stores
size of population necessary for any particular service to exist and remain profitable
A conurbation with more than 20 million people
metropolitan areas sprawl in all directions and suburbs take on many of the characteristics of traditional downtowns
A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Small communities lying beyond the suburbs of a city
A city with more than 100,000 residents located within a metropolitan area but that is not the central city and that has maintained a double-digit growth rate in recent years.
A ranking of settlements (hamlet, village, town, city, metropolis) according to their size and economic functions.
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
the use of vacant land and property within a built-up area for further construction or development
de facto segregation
Racial segregation that occurs, not as a result of the law, but as a result of patterns of residential settlement
de jure segregation
racial segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
urban ethnicity, gender, migration, socioeconomic status
data produced by recording respondents answers to questions
scientific study that takes place in a natural setting
A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices because of fear that persons of color will soon move into the neighborhood
settlement where a large percentage of poor immigrants to urban areas in LDCs live because of an affordable housing shortage
how property rights to land are allocated within societies, including how permissions are granted to access, use, control, and transfer land.
zoning regulations that create incentives or requirements for affordable housing development (creating cheaper housing when developing a region)
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
the impact of a person or community on the environment, expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources.
return a contaminated area to its original state
The renovation and improvement of areas that were previously run down.
urban growth boundary
a line used by city planners to separate areas that will remain urban from areas that will remain rural
Policies enacted by governments that protect farmland and prevent it from being sold into other use
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service.
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
a region in which several large cities and surrounding areas grow together
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