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Anthropology 111: Exam 1
Terms in this set (58)
What are the four field of anthropology?
What is a social predictor and what are some examples?
Social Predictor: Hundreds of factors that influence our behavior and attitudes
What is the difference between Absolute and Relative Dating? Give examples.
Absolute: The process of determining an age on a specified chronology in archeology
i.e. using radiometric methods to figure out the age of rocks
Relative: The process of determining the relative order of past events
i.e. the age of an object in comparison to another
What makes anthropology unique among the social sciences?
Anthropology offers a cross-cultural perspective. It is a comparative science that examines all societies, ancient and modern, simple and complex. Most other social sciences focus on just one society.
What is an anthropologists first, and primary concern?
the entire human condition (past, present, future) and (biology, society, language, and culture)
What does a paleoanthropologist study?
they are concerned with the origins and development of early humans. Fossils are assessed by the techniques of physical anthropology, comparative anatomy, and the theory of evolution.
what is culture?
-the key concept in anthropology
-a shared set of values, ideas, concepts, and rules of behavior
-Edward tylor was the first to define culture
what type of biology is central to physical anthropology?
Forensic biology and public health fields
how is anthropology Biocultural?
biocultural is scientific exploration of the relationships between human biology and culture, it attempts to understand how culture affects our biological capacities and limitations
what is an archeologists primary method of obtaining data?
Ethnography- gathering data that was organized, described, analyzed, and interpreted
What is the difference between diachronic and synchronic linguistics?
Diachronic: the study of how language as changed over time
Synchronic: The study of language use at the moment it is being used
What is meant by indirect diffusion? What is meant by it?
indirect diffusion: two cultures influence one another through intermediary third culture
-happens when traits are passed from one culture through a middleman to another culture, without the first and final cultures being in direct contact
Example: Mexican food being in Canada due to there being a large region (the united states) in between
How is anthropology empirical?
Anthropology is empirical through the way that anthropologists form questions, or hypotheses and then acquiring the knowledge through observation or experiment to either support or disprove a theory
What are some similarities humans share with primates?
Mating patterns, infant care, social systems, behavior, contact
an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all human cultures worldwide.
cultural traits that occur in many societies, but not all of them
cultural traits that are not prevalent but are instead usually confined to a single place or culture
What is ethnography and who developed it
Ethnography is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study.
founder of ethnography
created the cultural capital theory- how one acts when entering into a different culture and how they take different things into account
How is culture maladaptive
maladaptive-not providing adequate or appropriate adjustment to the environment or situation.
-climate is changing and fossil fuels should be limited but majority of people still drive vehicles anyways
how is culture adaptive
Adaptive- a way of operating where change is expected and adapting to those changes is smooth, routine and seamless
-In india, vegetarianism can be a law and it has become a religious practice because people in india have adapted to those customs
How is culture contested
contested- engaging in competition
-not everyone in a society agrees on what their culture can be, there is always disagreement, so it is being contested
how is culture integrated
integrated: one group assumes the beliefs, practices and rituals of another group without sacrificing the characteristics of its own culture.
-people from one culture may adopt the practices of another culture through cultural beliefs, foods, or arts
The social process by which culture is learned and transmitted across generations
The adoption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimension of, economic development
-seeks the use of the lessons of anthropological processes of development
-helping communities develop water infrastructure, eradicate poverty, or gain greater access to education
science dealing with the origin, races, customs, and beliefs of humankind
the anthropological study of life in and around world cities, including urban social problems, differences between urban and other environments, and adaptation to city life
-immigration, ethnicity, poverty, class, and urban violence
Franz Boas (1858-1942)
"The Father of American Anthropology," discovered plasticity of skulls, rejected craniometric classification
Processes that take place at different spatial scales.
A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
marriage outside the tribe, caste, or social group
trying to achieve too much change
the tendency to view "the less-developed countries" as more alike than they are
can be measured from the body through broken bones, tooth decay, and other bodily functions
not feeling healthy, possible due to a disease
- 1971, the Garbage Project
- studied garbology of Tucson
- applied archaeological methods to the analysis of modern American society
-excavated landfills in the 1970s
-In interviews found people say one thing, Garbage reveals another
-Alcohol = 50% more than said
-Heathly stuff = 50% less than said
-Helped determine how much you can reconstruct from just garbage
People tend to distort reality about the representations of themselves. You cannot trust peoples own views or representations of their daily lives. When you look at their daily practices, they tend to overreport or underreport about what they are doing.
Methods of Ethnographic Research
recording, description, mapping, interviewing, participant observation, cross-cultural comparison
Goal of Ethnography
to understand the richness and complexity of the group by observing it in action
A member of a biological group including human beings and related species that walk upright
a member of the primate family Hominidae, distinguished by bipedal posture and, in more recently evolved species, a large brain
the study of living nonhuman primates as well as primate fossils to better understand human evolution and early human behavior
- helps anthropologists make inferences about the early social organization of hominids and untangle issues of human nature and the origins of culture.
the specialty of anthropology that concerns itself with human health- the factors that contribute to disease or illness and the ways that human populations deal with disease or illness
Someone the ethnographer gets to know in the field, who teaches him or her about their society and culture, aka informant.
arm chair anthropology
How early cultural anthropologists conducted research by sitting and reading about other cultures
-refers to late 19th century and early 20th century
the study of diseases in ancestral human populations
what is the renaissance precursor to the modern museum?
The modern museum can trace some of the renaissance origins to private collections maintained by prominent individuals
a key anthropological research strategy involving both participation in and observation of the daily life of the people being studied
the study of a whole culture completely. observe human behavior and interview members of society
Goal- to study the broad range of human beliefs and behaviors to discover what it means to be human.
evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture.
-this is bad, and example could be hitler and his following nazi's
Examples of applied cultural anthropology
-McDonalds in india modified to suit their culture
-Linguistic diversity in classrooms
examples of applied anthropology
Cultural Resource Management, Forensic Anthropology, Corporate/Consumer Anthropology, Urban Anthropology
which field do american anthropologists mostly work in
the study of crime, criminals, law enforcement, and punishment
1st anthropologist to study religion. proposed 3 stages of religion. animism > polytheism > monotheism
Anthropology and Business
Culture Broker. U.S companies were not good at putting business in Latin America but Japan was because they had studied the culture and adapted to it. An anthropologist will be hired to work all levels of the business and write up a report of what employees like. Hector Qirko (TVA) would supply power to many states around Tennessee. Tenncare (first medicaid) was first in Tennessee and did not work at all.
variables that affect social identities, experiences, and activities in a sample or population
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