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41 terms

Sociology Test 2

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social differentiation
process by which different statuses develop in any group.
estate system
stratification, ownership of property, and the exercise of power is monopolized by an elite who have total control over societal resources; most common in agricultural societies
caste system
one's place in the stratification system is ascribed, hierarchy is often preserved through law and cultural practices that prevent free association and movement
class system
persons placement can change according to personal achievements, class depends to some degree on achieved status
life chances
the opportunities that people have in common by virtue of belonging to a particular class; ex. possessing goods, having an income, and having access to particular jobs.
prestige
the value others assign to people and groups
nouveau rich
those in the upper class with newly acquired wealth
economic restructuring
refers to the decline of manufacturing jobs in the US, the transformation of the economy by technological change, and the process of globalization.
myth of the model minority
the idea that a minority group must adopt alleged dominant group values to succeed.
meritocracy
system in which one's status is based on merit or accomplishments, not other social characteristics
social mobility
person's movement over time from one class to anotherl can be up or down
intergenerational
mobility occurring between generations; ex. daughter rises above class of her mother
intragenerational
mobility occurring within a generation; ex. when a person's class status changes as a result of business success
class consciousness
the perception that a class structure exists along with a feeling of shared identification with others
false consciousness
describe the class consciousness of subordinate classes who had internalized the view of the dominant view
ideology
belief systems that support the status quo
poverty line
amount of money needed to support the basic needs of the household; determined by the government
feminization of poverty
term used to refer to the large proportion of the poor who are women and children
racialization
process whereby some social category takes on what society perceives to be racial characteristics.
out group homogeneity effect
all members of any out group are perceived to be similar or identical to each other and differences among them are perceived to be minor or not exist
stereotype
oversimplified set of beliefs about members of a social group or social stratum
salience principle
the categorizing of people on the basis of what appears initially prominent and obvious
stereotype interchangeability
stereotypes are often interchangeable among racial and ethnic groups
prejudice
the evaluation of a social group and the individuals within it based on conceptions about the social group held despite facts that disprove them
discrimination
overt negative and unequal treatment of the members of some social group or stratum solely because of their membership in the group
gerrymandering
the calculated redrawing of election districts, school districts, and similar political boundaries in order to maintain racial segregation
racism
the perception and treatment of a racial or ethnic group as intellectually, socially, and culturally inferior to one's own group
authoritarian personality
tendency to rigidly categorize other people, as well as inclinations to submit to authority, strictly conform, be very tolerant of ambiguity, and be inclined toward superstition
assimilation
process by which a minority becomes socially, economically, and culturally absorbed within the dominant society
segregation
spatial and social separation of racial and ethnic groups
matrix of domination
no single factor alone determines one's location in society, rather race with class, gender, age, place one in a system of advantages and disadvantages
biological determinism
the explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics
gender identity
one's definition of oneself as a woman or man
gendered institutions
total pattern of gender relations that structure social institutions
gender apartheid
extreme segregation and exclusion of women from public life
patriarchy
society in which men have power over women
matriarchy
society in which women have power over men
comparable worth
paying women and men equivalent wages for jobs involving similar levels of skill; Often job titles mask the skill level required for a particular job.
feminist theory
the analyses that seek to understand the position of women in society for the explicit purpose of improving their position in society
minority group
any distinct group in society that shares common group characteristics and is forced to occupy low status in society because of prejudice and discrimination
pluralism
the maintenance and persistence of ones culture, language, mannerisms, practices, art and so on.