Upgrade to remove ads
ESS 120 Exam 3 Questions
Terms in this set (84)
Explain the relationship between raiding and trading in regards to the vikings
Once a trade relationship was established, led to raiding.
Explain the shift from pigs and cows to sheep
Gave up on raising pigs and cows because pigs dug up everything, and cows were too time consuming to raise. Sheep were easier and ate literally anything, economy became based on wool
Explain why Iceland is the most ecologically damaged country in Europe
-Ash from volcanic eruptions
-Half of soil eroded into ocean due to open grazing practices
Describe the soil and ecology before the vikings
-Lowlands covered in birch and willow; 25% island in forest
-Fertile soil up to 50ft deep
-Climate mild enough for barley due to Gulf Stream
-Lakes, rivers and seas teemed with fish
-Seabirds, ducks, walruses, and seals were prevalent
Describe the Colonization process the vikings used, and it's impact on the environment for future generations
-By 930 AD all suitable land was taken
-Herding economy because farming failed (survived on sheep, wild animals and later fish)
-Exterminated the walrus
-Wood irresponsibly used or burned
-Soil carried out to sea
-highlands stripped of soil and vegetation
Describe the factors affecting the environmental fate of Iceland
-no prior inhabitants before vikings
-2nd most unfavorable potential for food production right after Greenland
Explain why maps have a northern exaggeration to them
European's were Northern so they wanted to make themselves look important
Explain the role of Pollen, oxygen isotopes, and calcium and sodium in determining past weather/climatic conditions
-Pollen: take mud cores to find out what was growing near the lakes
-Ice: uses oxygen isotopes to determine how warm the climate was, more oxygen-18 in warmer times.
-Calcium and Sodium: in the snow means storms, blew sea spray up to the ice caps.
When was the Medieval warm period and Little Ice Age and how did it effect the vikings?
-Warm Period: 900ce-1300, warm enough to grow hay and pasture animals
Little Ice Age: 1300-1800's, cut off trade routes, no hay and no pasture for Norse
Explain how the Inuit adapted to "Climate Change in the Little Ice Age
moved around, hunted seals
What observation showed the Norse were desperate for food?
They split the bones of animals and ate the bone marrow, always at the verge of starvation
Explain how ecological and environmental shifts are documented with sediment data
End of the last ice age:
-Charcoal showed up in sediment
-Tree pollen decreased and grasses and sedges increased
-Pollen of imported plants for pasture increased
-Magnetic susceptibility increased (erosion)
-Sand followed after complete denuding of the land
How does the fate of the Siberian family following their "discovery"confirm Diamond's hypothesis regarding the impact of visitors on native cultures?
Confirms that germ warfare was the most effective means of conquering
Explain how federal acts encouraged the dust bowl
After the Civil War, settlement to the West was encouraged with: 4 federal homestead acts, gave ownership of 160-640 acres of land to each applicants at little or no cost (too small plots for cohesive farming practices/be considered an economic unit)
Explain how the price of wheat contributed to the dust bowl
Higher wheat prices gave farmers more income to work with meaning they could buy more tractors. Caused till farming and destruction of topsoil. High prices also led to over-farming of wheat
Did the Homestead Act provide enough land for an economical ranch unit? Why?
No. One parcel of land could only support one cow per 40 acres. With 640 acres, only 16 cows could be raised which is not a ranch unit. Normal amount is 2 cows per acre
Describe Black Sunday
-Worst "black blizzard" of Dust Bowl on April 14, 1935.
-Congress declares soil erosion "a national menace".
-850,000,000 tons of topsoil blown off Southern Plains during 1935.
Describe the conservation practices that resulted from the Dust Bowl
-Established the Soil Conservation Service
-Established Conservation Districts
-Public Programs started
-Inventory of Soil Resorces
If windbreak trees are 60 feet high and 40% porous how far apart should they be placed?
-Windbreaks every half mile
-Want a windbreak that lets some wind through
-8h in the back, 32h in front, 40 in total (40*60)/5280 ~= 0.5.. 40% porous
Understand the significance of windbreaks to help with erosion
-Use a structure to cause a break in the wind to minimize damage to crops and soil from wind
Where was the epicenter of wind erosion during the dust bowl?
-Panhandle of Oklahoma
-Top of Texas
-Into Colorado and New Mexico
What are the major pools in the carbon cycle?
-Lithosphere: 66 to 100 million gigatons
-Oceans: 38 to 40,000 gigatons
-Fossils: 10,000 gigatons
-Soil Organic Matter: 2,300 gigatons
-Atmosphere: 800 gigatons
What is the greenhouse effect and what are the major greenhouse gases?
Gases reflect infrared energy, keeps the planet about 60 degrees F warmer than it would be without
-CO2, Water vapor, N2O
How is CO2 produced? Who/What consumes it?
-CO2 is produced by animal respiration, burning of hydrocarbons, and fermentation of liquids
-Plants consume and store it during photosynthesis
What is a carbon source and sink? Give an example of each
-Sink is where carbon is stored (ex oceans)
-Source is anywhere carbon is found (living organisms, fossil fuels, ect)
What is carbon emissions and sequestration?
-Emission: Production of carbon
-Sequestration: Storage of carbon
What is respiration?
The process of breaking down(processing) oxygen in the air to be used by organisms which then convert into carbon dioxide to breathe out forward plants to use
What makes soil more fertile for agriculture, and which soil orders are the best for ag?
Chocolate, dark brown soils are the most productive, mollisols.
-High nutrient content makes soil fertile
How quickly can you lose an inch of topsoil? How long does it take to form an inch of topsoil?
-lose around .25 inches every year
-takes 100 to rebuild an inch
What options do we have to increase carbon sequestration?
Increase the amount of carbon sinks available
What Agricultural practices increase soil microbial respiration and CO2 emissions?
Tillage, gives microorganisms oxygen needed
What Agricultural practices reduce CO2 emissions and increase carbon sequestration?
2)Keep the ground covered with residue and cover the crops
//Preserve existing forests and increase reforestation
//Return sensitive agricultural land back to forest, wetland, and pasture.
Why focus on Agriculture for Carbon Sequestration?
-Potential to reduce erosion, poverty, and pollution.
-Increase crop yields and soil fertility
What is the best thing that can be done to achieve good soil management?
-regular, systematic return of organic compounds to the soil
-keep cover crop
Know the centers of domestication/origin for crops?
-andes and amazonia,
-west africa, sahel, ethiopia
Be able to give examples of civilizations that failed due to environmental issues
-Easter, Pictarian, and Henderson Islands
-Anasazi, Greenland, and Myan civilizations
Know which types of island approaches worked best
-Bottom up worked better for smaller islands that had a common goal
-Top down worked better for islands with a centralized government
Be able to describe PNG at the time of discovery
-46,000 years of human population
-Few inputs from the outside world
-Near equator with ridges and valleys
-No European influence until 1930's
-Rough terrain confined explorers to the lowlands and assumed the rest was uninhabited
Be able to briefly describe PNG agriculture
-Domesticated Taro, yams, sugarcane, and bananas
-Raised pigs and chickens
How did indigenous knowledge contribute to agricultural success?
-Knowledge of land passed through generations of soil and forest management practices
How did silviculture assist their likelihood of civilization survival?
-Silviculture: selection and cultivation of fast-growing wood species, which are spread through the diffusion of knowledge
-Methods to Allow Wood-dependent Society Survival:
-Wood good for timber and fuel
-Improve soil fertility by shortening fallow periods
-Roots hold soil in steep slopes
-Reportedly reduce taro beetle impact but pathway not understood
-Like the sound of the wind rattling the trees
Be able to explain the role of the "big men"
-forces of personality
-did not have control but were rather influences -involved a lot of talking and meetings
-lived in same huts as everyone else
Be able to explain the approach of the Tokugawa Era
-Top down approach
-Strong centralized government w/ a currency, uniform weights and measurements, infrastructure, trade within Japan.
-Almost no trade with the rest of the world
-Self-sufficient in food, timber, metals
-System collapsed in 1868
How did the top down measures impact the outcome?
-Rapid Population and economy growth
-Agricultural production increased
-Solved imbalance between forest consumption and production
-Focus on wood supply chain management, consumption, and transport
How is land use evolving in Vietnam due to population pressure?
-Began farming up the slopes
Understand the difficulties of using marginal lands
-As population grows, there is more demand for land, start farming on land that sucks for agriculture
-Bad to farm above the irrigation on slopes
Why is a pole star important to navigation?
Maps were distorted by explorers, and pole stars give an absolute direction to travel by.
What is the southern cross? Is it a pole star?
-Not a pole star but a constellation
-Sits above the south pole and is used to figure out where the pole is
Why were the maps distorted by the direction of travel?
-Need a good clock to get longitude
-A good cartographer can determine the direction the ship was going when it made the measurements
-A good polaris sighting is +- 55 Miles. One degree latitude is always 60 miles apart. The point is that their measurements were good at +-1 degree
Why did China stop exploring?
-A fire burned down the palace and killed many servants. which was taken as a devine sign that they were looking outward too much, thought the gods where mad
-adopted a policy of limited exploration.
-Destroyed all maps and docked all ships
Compare and contrast Europe to China in the 1400's
-China had an army of 1 million
-Europes battles were a couple hundred
-China would feed thousands on porcelain while Europe would feed a few hundred in barbaric conditions
What is the population of China and how does it compare to the US?
-China = ~1.38 billion
-US= ~326 million
Be able to explain the impact on peoples living where the Three Gorges Dam was built.
-More than 1 million people displaced
-244 mi^2 of land flooded
-More than 1000 village and towns flooded
-Architectural and cultural sites of the Ba people disappeared
-Less sediment and silicon in brackish coastal water, Si:N ratios dropping which could impact fisheries.
-Dam increases trade on river
-Know the dam cost $29 billion to make,
-Make sure that when the Yangtze River is brought up, that it floods a lot and that is bad because it is destructive.
Explain the effect of the timber harvest ban on African timber harvests
The ban caused 15%-20% of the commercial timber for the urban markets of China have been pulled from the supply chain. As domestic supply dropped the government relaxed restrictions, even encouraged import substitution (reduced tariffs, etc.)
-Fast growing high yielding timber forest bases development program
-Expected annual timber output of 130 million ~40% of China's timber consumption
Explain the impediments to mechanization
-Mechanization costs a lot of money (a few months of income)
-They already have labor
-Topography: You can't mechanize if you are on a hill
-Each family has a little piece of land, highly diverse, not easy for mechanization.
-Know the population map and how it it relates to the precipitation map.
When was the Irish potato famine?
Why did they grow potatoes?
-Very productive crop (needed little land to get a huge yield)
-Very efficient to feed families
How many people did the blight impact?
-1 million starved
-1 million emigrated
Which unique group of people sent aid to the Irish?
Choctaw sent $170
How did the Battle of Culloden "pave the way" to the Highland clearances?
-The Battle of Culloden ended the uprising Jacobite rebellion
-Population grew by 80% from 1755-1821
-Land Holdings per farmer decreased in size
-Middlemen had more tenants
How did religion play a role in the clearances?
-wanted to become more like the south and become more civilized
-80% of the tenants were Catholic; penal laws forbid Catholics from owning or leasing lands, voting, holding public office, living with 5 miles of town, obtaining an education, entering a profession. In 1829 Irish Catholics could again sit in Parliament.
How did the lowly sheep impact the need for the Clearances?
-Wool prices increased 400% in the 1700's which caused rent prices to go up due to more available income
Why did the Clearances happen?
They were the deliberate and systematic depopulation of inner Highland glens. Presbyterians vs Catholics: majority of those evicted were Roman Catholic, religious and social divides continue today
Describe some of the acts that supported the clearances
-Ban the wearing of tartar, teaching Gaelic, illegal to gather, banned playing
-Heritable Jurisdictions Act(1747):
Describe the ways and means that people were moved to North America
-More regulations on slave ships than on Irish ships
Who interceded for the Wataugans?
Cherokees. They got to stay as a result
Explain why European countries expanded into Africa
-Needed raw materials for factories to be able to produce goods
-Used as a market for finished goods
-Scramble for Africa in 1885-1910
Be able to give examples where country/tribal borders caused problems decades after lines were arbitrarily drawn on the map
Didn't take into account the tribal relationships when boarders were drawn, caused tensions and ultimately wars. Hutu and Tutsi- Rwandan Genocide and Zimbabwe and Congo
Be able to give both historical and current day examples of land dispossession and its effects on civilizations
-Tanganyika Scheme: an example of conflicting approaches to agriculture driven by the colonialism and mechanization era.
-The Rwanda Genocide: A modern example of how the explosion of population pressure and environmental problems, food insecurity, civil unrest and warfare- comparison of Maya civilization collapse dispossession.
What factors played into the decision to grow groundnuts in Africa?
-Cost effective to grow, contributed to paying back of British debts after WW2
-Shortage of vegetable oils and fats that were replaced by nuts
-Put nitrogen back into the soil for the next grow cycle
What soil properties played into the failure of the scheme?
-sandy soils compounded by erratic rainfall
Explain the impacts of scheme's failure to the local economy
-Temporary influx of money/wages
-Labor compensation for the other well to do enterprises
-Project cancellation led to market collapse
-Many companies did not invest in Tanzania due to the huge misconception of what happened
-Should have done a pilot project, ag doesnt work on a scale, could have boosted Nigerian production first
Who settled Rwanda? Know the two tribes and their origins
Hutu- from south and west, farmers, 84%
Tutsi- Nilotic (came from the nile river valley) people from north and east, took care of livestock, 15%
How did the drought and environmental problems exacerbate the racial tensions?
Tutsi kings conquered others and put in anti hutu policies
1930 belgium started requiring identity card classifying Hutu and Tutsi
1959- 1963: Hutu population revolted
1962: Rwanda gained independence
1963: Hutu gain the upper hand, massacred a large number of Tutsi (app 10 to 20,000) Established an independent Hutu-dominated state
1973: staged a coup against Hutu dominated government
1989: Economic improvement halted by drought and accumulated environmental issues
April 6, 1994: genocide triggered after president's jet was shot down
Explain how land tenure impacted this genocide
Land prices went up as well as population which caused a land shortage, large farms were 2 acres
Food insecurity caused violence
Hutu dream of having enough land was realized when Tutsi left
Rwanda is the only country to ban which common item?
Why do soybeans struggle to grow in Rwanda?
Too close to the equator
Why is lime added to soil?
Because the soil did not respond to fertilizer and it increases the PH of the soil to make the macronutrients available
What is unique about this outhouse?
Separates urine and feces to compost in 24 hours
Helps removes the smell
North american crops
maize beans sweet potatoes
South american crops
Potato, cotton, tomatoe, rubber, cocoa & tabacco
COFFEE, flax, sesame, okra
wheat, oats, peas, apple near Mediterranean
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
ESS 120 Final
ESS120 Exam 1 Dr. Neal Eash
ESS 120 Final Exam
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ESS EXAM 2
ESS120 Exam 1 Dr. Neal Eash
ESS 120 Lecture Notes