29 terms

Psychology Chapter 6

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conditioning
a type of learning that involves stimulus-response connections, in which the response is conditional on the stimulus
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit an unconditioned response when that neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that normally causes an unconditioned response
unconditioned stimulus
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned, automatic response.
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, an unlearned, automatic response
conditioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that, because of pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response
conditioned response
a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus
taste aversion
a type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation
extinction
in classical conditioning, the disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after some time has passed
generalization
the tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli that have similar characteristics
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish the conditioned stimulus from other stimuli that are similar
flooding
a fear-reduction technique based on the principles of classical conditioning that involves exposing the individual to a harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished
systematic desensitization
a type of counterconditioning, used to treat phobias, in which a pleasant, relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
counterconditioning
a therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response
operant conditioning
learning that is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement
reinforcement
a stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response
primary reinforcers
stimuli, such as food or warmth, that have reinforcement value without learning
secondary reinforcers
stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer
positive reinforcers
encouraging stimuli that increases the frequency of a behavior when they are presented
negative reinforcers
unpleasant stimuli that increase the frequency of behavior when they are removed
schedule of reinforcement
a timetable for when and how often reinforcement for a particular behavior occurs
continuous reinforcement
the reinforcement of a desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement
a type of conditioned learning in which only some of the responses are reinforced
shaping
in operant conditioning, a procedure in which reinforcement guides behavior toward closer approximations of the desired goal.
chaining
in operant conditioning, combining the steps of a sequence to progress toward a final action
latent learning
learning that occurs but remains hidden until there is a need to use it
observational learning
learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
distributed learning
learning that occurs regularly and is distributed over time
massed learning
learning that does not occur regularly but occurs all at one time