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Hindsight Bias
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Terms in this set (48)
Scatter plotA graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlationIllusory CorrelationThe perception of a relationship where none existsCase StudyAn observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principlesSurveyA technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of themNaturalistic ObservationObserving and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situationCorrelationA measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1ExperimentA research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effects on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variableReplicationRepeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstancesStatistical SignificanceA statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chanceOperational DefinitionA statement of the procedures used to define research variables. Ex human intelligence -- what an intelligence test measures.Critical Thinkingthinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.Theoryan explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observationsHypothesisa testable prediction, often implied by a theoryPopulationall the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a studySampleitems selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the populationCorrelation Coefficienta statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)Placeboexperimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.Placebo Effectany effect that seems to be a consequence of administering a placeboExperimental Groupin an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.Control Groupin an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.Confounding Variablea factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.Rangethe difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distributionNormal Curve/distributiona symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer near the extremesInferential Statisticsnumerical methods used to determine whether research data support a hypothesis or whether results were due to chanceInformed Consentan ethical principle requiring that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participateDebriefingthe post-experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participantslongitudinal studyresearchers follow the same subjects over an extended period of time.confirmation biasexperimenter might consciously or unconsciously look to confirm what they already believe about their hypothesisNull hypothesisResearchers work to reject, nullify or disprove the null hypothesis. Researchers come up with an alternate hypothesis, one that they think explains a phenomenon, and then work to reject the null hypothesis.confidentialityresearchers may not release or publish the names of anyone participating in the experiment.protection of participantsAll participants are protected from physical mental and emotional harm.Right to discontinueParticipants have the right to end their participation during any phase of an experiment.minimum of deceptionResearchers have an obligation to avoid deceiving participants whenever possible.framingthe way questions are worded can dramatically impact the results of your survey.Descriptive Statisticsdescribe the basic features of the data in a study. They provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures.Skewed distribution to the leftSkewed distribution to the rightvariancemeasures how far a data set is spread out. The technical definition is "The average of the squared differences from the mean."

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