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AP US History - Unit 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (33)
Bill of Rights
The Bill of Rights, which consist of the first ten Constitutional Amendments, guarantee certain rights to America citizens in all circumstances.
Purpose of the Bill of Rights
This bill was put forth by Anti-Federalists, who feared forms of government intrusion on personal liberties.
Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Washington declared that the U.S. would not take sides after the French Revolution initiated a war between France and a coalition consisting primarily of England, Austria and Prussia. Washington's Proclamation was technically a violation of the Franco-American Treaty of 1778.
The Electoral College
A group selected by the states to elect the President and the Vice President, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress.
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan as Secretary of the Treasury
(1) Funding at Par
- improve and promote nation's credit
- creditors more likely to lend $ to the government if it felt confident that the government would repay
- urged Congress to assume all national debt (54 mil.) accumulated during the Revolution
- inflated values of government bonds once they gained the confidence of Treasury when Funding at Par was passed by Congress in 1790
- caused a run-on of bond buying in the countryside (news travels slow..)
(2) Assuming State Debts
- Federal Government would take on all states debts accrued during Revolution\
- Assumption Bill (Compromise): States would allow government to assume debt if Capital is moved South
- would create a greater tie between Federal and State governments (cement the union)
- created debate: states w/o debt didn't like paying taxes to pay off debt for other states
- Compromise (Log Rolling): Virginia (along w/ the South) won DC on the Potomac which brought more commerce and prestige
- Virginia and other states agreed to Assumption of state debts
- Hamilton and Jefferson had a major role in hammering out the deal
- passed by Congress in 1789 (Revenue Act)
- provide income
- first national tariff law
- used to protect the growth of American industry
(4) Excise taxes (sales tax on specific items sold to pay national debt)
- Distilled Spirits Tax of 1791: 7 cents per gallon tax
- primarily affected backcountry distillers
- much easier to transport whiskey than a grain crop
- distill grain crop into whiskey for sake of easy transportation
- extremely free-flowing and often used as currency
- hoped it would cut back on alcoholic consumption on moral/social grounds
- wasn't concerned with their protests since most were Anti-Federalists
(5) National Bank
- the biggest source of debate between Hamilton and Jefferson
- the foundation of Hamilton's financial plan was the establishment of the national bank
- bank would be a private organization, but the government would control the majority of stocks/shares
- would deposit surplus government money
- bank would turn around and loan federal funds to private cos. to keep wealth ciculating
bank would print money to ensure stable currency
- bank of the United States established in 1791 after being passed by Congress and signed into law by Washington
Major Achievement(s) of the Articles of Confederation
1. Governed nation during the American Revolutionary War (raised army, paid soldiers) 2. Negotiated the Treaty of Paris at end of war (established independence from Britain and set boundaries for US) 3. Passed the Land Ordinance of 1785 - (townships and free public education) 4. Passed the Northwest Ordinance how new territory settled and settlers. Rights (Outlawed slavery, guaranteed freedom of religion, trial by jury)
The Articles of Confederation
They served as the first constitution of the United States. This document officially established the government of the union of the thirteen states.
Washington's views of political parties
He warned against the dangers of them because they working selfishly, not for the good of the country
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799, in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The Resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
There was only one vote per state, regardless of its size. No power to regulate commerce or trade between the states, each state could put taxes on trade between states. National gov't didn't have power to tax. Revenue comes from states. Couldn't force states to obey its laws and taxation was ignored because they could not be enforced. No national army or navy. No national courts. Each state has own paper money. No president, lacked strength and solid leader. No power to raise money to pay for action against border encroachments. Any changes to Articles required unanimous vote leading to long delays in implementation
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
created a policy for administering the Northwestern Territories; it included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories
Land Ordinance of 1785
provided for the sale of land in the old Northwest and put the proceeds toward repayign the national debt
Hamilton and Jefferson's debate over the first national bank of the United States
Alexander Hamilton saw how the Bank of England created money and wanted the U.S. government to start its own bank with branches in various states. Such a bank could create a uniform currency circulating through all the states and provide a place for the national government to deposit its money or borrow money when needed. Thomas Jefferson opposed this plan. He thought states should charter banks that could issue money. Jefferson also believed that the Constitution didn't give the national government the power to establish a bank. Hamilton disagreed on this point too. The argument between Hamilton and Jefferson over the bank led to a sharp debate between those two members of Washington's cabinet. The bank became an important political issue in 1791, and for years to come.
Washington's farewell address
A document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. This document was rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
Hamilton's view of interpreting the Constitution (loose constructionism)
Hamilton contended for a loose or broad interpretation of the Constitution; he and his followers thus evolved this theory by invoking the "elastic clause" of the Constitution; uses the idea of implied powers
Great Compromise of 1787
Made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house. (resulted from the New Jersey/Virginia Plans)
3/5 Compromise of 1787
A compromise between the Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787. In the convention, 3/5 of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and appointment of members in the US House of Representatives. Delegates opposed to slavery wanted to only count the free inhabitants of each state, while supporters wanted to count slaves in actual numbers.
The Federalist Papers
This was a series of essays promoting ratification of the Constitution. It was published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
XYZ Affair: "I will never send another minister to France without assurances that he will be received, respected and honored as a representative of a great, free, powerful, and independent nation"
Said by John Adams after the French tried to demand money to speak with them.
Shay's Rebellion and effect it had on the delegates at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers, led by Daniel Shays, attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes. The events of the rebellion served as a catalyst for the calling of the U.S. Constitutional Convention, and ultimately the shape of the new government.
Congress's refusal to accept Hamilton's plan concerning economic subsidies
Though Congress refused to accept Hamilton's proposals in 1791, due to opposition from James Madison and his supporters, much of Hamilton's third report would later be adopted by the United States Congress despite continued opposition to the support of industry through subsidy.
agreement between the United States and Spain that changed Florida's border and made it easier for American ships to use the port of New Orleans
Alien and Sedition Acts
The Alien Act empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens.
The Sedition Act made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials.
Platform of the Federalist Party (Alexander Hamilton)
They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution. Led by Alexander Hamilton, they believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States.
Original purpose of convention in Philadelphia in 1787
To just amend the Articles of Confederation. After examination, they realized a complete overhaul was needed.
The Ratification Battle between Federalists and Anti-Federalists
The Federalists wanted to ratify the Constitution, the Anti-Federalists did not. One of the major issues these two parties debated concerned the inclusion of the Bill of Rights. The Federalists felt that this addition wasn't necessary, because they believed that the Constitution as it stood only limited the government not the people. The Anti- Federalists claimed the Constitution gave the central government too much power, and without a Bill of Rights the people would be at risk of oppression.
The Assumption Bill
(1790) Alexander Hamilton's bill that took on the debts of states still in debt. This angered states that had already paid their debts off. Part of Hamilton's economic plan to create a powerful, national economic power. Only agreed to by moving the country's capital to the Potomac River (VA)
Convention of 1800
also known as the Treaty of Mortefontaine, it was an agreement which freed America from its alliance with France (Franco-American Treaty of 1778), forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
Basic purpose of the Articles 1-3 of the Constitution
The first three articles of the Constitution divided the government into three branches: judicial, legislative and executive. They describe the powers and limits of each branch.
Purpose of Article 7 of the Constitution
It explained how the states should ratify the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
A system that ensured that no particular branch of government gained too much power over another. It demonstrated the fear of absolute power in one group/individual as well as preventing one branch from overpowering the others.
Division of Powers (3 branch system of government)
A system that separated the powers of government into three separate branches to limit arbitrary excesses by the government. It led to the system of checks and balances so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution are reserved to the states or to the people
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