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PSY 200 Chapter 9
Terms in this set (20)
What is a stimulus? Give an example.
people, objects, or events currently present in one's environment
Example: people around us, noises we hear are stimuli
What is an ABC assessment?
Antecedent - the stimuli that exists just before the occurrence of the behavior (presence of friends just before Johnny swore)
Behavior - the behavior itself (Johnny's swearing)
Consequence - the consequences of the behavior (approval from Johnny's friends)
What is stimulus control?
the degree of correlation between a stimulus and a response
What is considered good stimulus control? Give an example.
when an organism behaves in one way in the presence of a given stimulus and another way in its absence; a stop sign
What is a SD? Give an example.
Discriminative stimulus; For example, if a kid is swearing the other kids would be the SD because their laughter would reinforce the swearing.
What is a S∆? Give an example.
S-delta; a specific response will not be reinforced; in the same instance if a kids swears in front of his parents their reaction would not reinforce the swearing.
What is the difference between a stimulus and a discriminative stimulus?
a stimulus is the sound that may cause a behavior and a discriminative stimulus is being able to tell the difference between the stimulus and a similar sound
What is the stimulus discrimination training procedure? Give an example.
Procedure of reinforcing response in the presence of an SD and extinguishing that response in the presence of an S-delta
What are the two effects of stimulus discrimination training?
(1) reinforces the response to SD (2) Extinguishes response to S-delta
What is stimulus generalization? Give an example.
procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of a stimulus or situation and the effect of the response becoming more probable in the presence of another stimulus or situation
What is the difference between stimulus discrimination and stimulus generalization?
Stimulus discrimination is being able to tell the difference between the stimulus and a similar stimulus. Generalized stimulus is behavior is more probable in presence of one stimulus because reinforced in the presence of another stimulus
What is a common-element stimulus class? Give an example.
Common-element stimulus is generalized stimulus.
What is a stimulus equivalence class? Give an example.
No physical similarity
What is the difference between stimulus generalization involving common-element stimulus classes and stimulus generalization involving stimulus equivalence classes?
Common-element stimulus is generalized stimulus. No physical similarity
What are four questions might you ask yourself about a stimulus when you are setting it up to be an SD? (See pg. 90)
(1) Is the stimulus different from other stimuli along more that one dimension?
(2) Is the stimulus one that can be presented only or at least mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur to avoid confusion with the occurrence of the stimulus on other occasions?
(3) Is the stimulus of the type that the probability fo the person attending to it when it is presented is high?
(4) Are there any undesirable responses that might be controlled by the chosen stimulus?
What is an error in stimulus discrimination training?
Sometimes a bad response may be reinforced and a good response may be extinguished
What is a contingency? Give an example.
an if-then type of arrangement
What is a three term contingency of reinforcement? Give an example.
if we describe both the antecedents and the consequences of a behavior that is a three term contingency. In the book, Johnny's swearing came under the control of the kids as the SDs (then it came to not occur in front of his grandparents who are the S-deltas) through trial and error
From a behavioral perspective, what is a rule?
describes a situation in which a behavior will lead to a consequence
What is the difference between rule-governed behavior and contingency-shaped behavior?
Rule-governed behavior is behavior that is controlled by the statement of a rule.
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