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5 - The Early Republic (All)
Terms in this set (55)
George Washington's plantation in Virginia.
An established tradition based on the first time an event occurred. Washington was cognoscente that his actions would establish these.
The leaders of the various executive branch departments and agencies that advise the President. This group is not established by the Constitution, but was a precedent established by President Washington.
An uprising in 1794 in the backcountry of Virginia against a government tax on whiskey production. President Washington responded by leading the army to enforce the tax, establishing the power of the new federal government to enact and collect taxes.
Washington's Farewell Address
Letter and speech by President Washington at the end of his tenure summarizing his political philosophy and outlining his recommendations for the nation. Most remembered, he warned against entering into foreign alliances.
Constitutional amendment ratified in 1951 limiting the president to two four-year terms. It legalized the precedent established by President Washington and broken only by Franklin Roosevelt.
The act of freeing slaves.
First Secretary of the Treasury. He was a Federalist, one of the authors of the Federalist Papers during the debate over ratification of the Constitution. His financial plans included assuming state debts, creating a national bank, and promoting manufacturing. He was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr.
Secretary of the Treasury
The leader of the Department of the Treasury and the person in the executive branch primarily responsible for guiding financial policy.
Bonds sold by the government. Essentially they are loans people make to the government with a promise of repayment with interest.
Essentially an IOU sold by the government. Essentially they are loans people make to the government with a promise of repayment with interest.
First Bank of the United States
Bank created by an act of congress as part of Alexander Hamilton's financial plan. He hoped that it would help stabilize the nation's financial system by issuing a stable currency.
Money paid to a certain group of farmers or producers by the government to help support that industry.
Taxes collected on imported goods.
Government policies meant to promote domestic business, either with direct help (subsidies) or by making imports more expensive (tariffs).
A way of reading the Constitution that results in a belief that the government can only do with is expressly written.
A way of reading the Constitution that leads to a belief that the Constitution outlines, but does not express every possible power the government has.
The nation's capital city, created in the 1790s and designed by Pierre Charles L'Enfant.
District of Columbia
The square area of land selected by President Washington and set aside by Maryland and Virginia for the new national capital. Today the city of Washington has grown to fill the entire area. The part on the Virginia side of the Potomac River was given back to the state of Virginia.
Pierre Charles L'Enfant
Frenchmen who laid out the street map of Washington, the new national capital.
Uprising in France begun in 1789 by the people against the royalty and aristocrats. It was supported in America by the Democratic-Republicans but eventually dissolved into a reign of terror in which many people were accused and beheaded without a fair trial. It eventually ended with the rise of the dictator Napoleon Bonaparte.
A group of people who work together to affect public policy and support candidates for public office.
One of the first two political parties. They supported the Constitution, strong central government, Hamilton's financial plans, and favored Britain over France. Washington and Adams were the only president's from this party.
One of the first two political parties. They were the successors to the Anti-Federalists, favored state power fearing tyrannical power concentrated in the federal government. Jefferson and Madison were their leaders.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed in 1798 by the Federalist congress and President Adams designed to limit the influence of their political opponents. They severely limited the freedom of speech and were clearly in violation of the First Amendment.
Election of 1800
Presidential election between President John Adams and Jefferson. It resulted in the first transition of power from one party to another.
Former Vice President who shot and killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. Later he moved West and was accused of treason due to his role in a plot to help western states secede from the Union.
1804 event in which Alexander Hamilton was shot and killed by Aaron Burr.
Third Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was critical in the establishment of the court as a co-equal branch of government. He wrote the Marbury v. Madison opinion.
Marbury v. Madison
1801 Supreme Court case that resulted from the appointment of the Midnight Justices. The resulting decision by Chief Justice John Marshall established the principle of judicial review.
A group of Federalist judges appointed by President John Adams just before the inauguration of Thomas Jefferson. Marbury was one and his appointment resulted in the Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court decision that established judicial review.
The principle that the Supreme Court can rule acts of congress or presidential decision in violation of the Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland
1819 Supreme Court cased decided by the Marshall Court that established the authority of the federal government over the states.
The principle that the federal government has power over the states. States cannot ignore or overturn federal law.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Supreme court case in 1824 that established Congress's power to regulate interstate business.
Line from the Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate business between states. It was the subject of the Gibbons v. Ogden Supreme Court case.
1794 treaty with Britain resolving problems after the Revolution. America agreed to pay debts owed to Britain and Britain agreed to leave forts it occupied in the West. It was hated by Democratic-Republicans who saw the treaty as overly pro-Britain and anti-French.
1795 treaty with Spain resolving a border dispute between the border of the United States and Spanish Florida. It also guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River and the Right of Deposit in Spanish New Orleans.
Right of Deposit
Permission to stop and do business in a foreign port. This was an important element of Pinckney's Treaty when Spain granted it to American farmers transporting crops along the Mississippi River.
Political scandal during the John Adams administration when letters from American diplomats in France were made public detailing an effort by France's foreign minister to demand bribes from the Americans.
Quasi-War with France
Open conflict with France from 1798 to 1800 on the high seas due to American neutrality. France was attempting to stop American merchants from doing business with Britain. No declaration of war was ever made.
A series of kingdoms along the Mediterranean Coast of Africa. They preyed on merchant ships demanding tribute for safe passage. Presidents Jefferson and Madison both sent the navy to fight them.
First Barbary War
Naval conflict in the Mediterranean Sea between America and the Barbary Pirates in 1801 during Thomas Jefferson's presidency.
Second Barbary War
Naval conflict in the Mediterranean Sea between America and the Barbary Pirates in 1807 during James Madison's presidency.
Embargo of 1807
Embargo on imports from Europe established by President Jefferson in an effort to stop French and British ships from attacking American merchants. The plan backfired as it hurt Americans more than Europeans.
Young members of congress in 1812 who advocated for war with Britain. They were led by Kentuckian Henry Clay.
Forcing American sailors to serve on British ships. This was one cause of the War of 1812.
War of 1812
War with Britain. It was America's first declared war. It lasted three years and resulted in a military stalemate, but affirmed American independence and provided renewed sense of national identity.
British attack on Washington, DC
1814 attack during the War of 1812 by the British on the nation's capital in which they burned the White House, Capitol and other government buildings.
Francis Scott Key
American lawyer who wrote The Star-Spangled Banner during the War of 1812.
The Star-Spangled Banner
The national anthem. They lyrics were written by Frances Scott Key during the War of 1812.
Meeting of Federalists in 1814 in which secession of the New England States was discussed. It led to the downfall of the party as a force in national politics.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty that ended the War of 1812. It reaffirmed American independence but otherwise resulted in no significant changes.
American hero of the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812, and later president.
Battle of New Orleans
Final battle of the War of 1812. It was actually fought after the Treaty of Ghent had been signed, but before the news of the treaty had arrived. The stunning American victory propelled Andrew Jackson to national popularity.
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