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56 terms

The Human Body Plan + Skeletal System

10.27.10
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Muscle Tissue
tissue composed of cells that can contract; three types - skeletal, smooth, and cardiac
Skeletal Muscle
this muscle moves the bones in your trunk, limbs, and face
Smooth Muscle
this muscle handles body functions that you cannot control consciously
Cardiac Muscle
this muscle, found in your heart, pumps blood through your body
Nervous Tissue
this tissue contains cells that receives and transmits messages in the form of electrical impulses; makes up your brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Neurons
cells that are specialized to send and receive messages throughout the body
Epithelial Tissue
this tissue consists of layers of cells that line or cover all internal and external body surfaces; body's outer layer of skin
Connective Tissue
this tissue binds, supports, and protects structures in the body; most abundant and diverse of the tissues; includes bone, cartilage, tendons, fat, and blood
Matrix
connective tissues are characterized by cells that are embedded in large amounts of an intercellular substance called ______; can be solid, liquid, or semisolid
Organ
this consists of various tissues that work together to carry out a specific function
Skeletal System
bones
Muscular System
muscles (skeletal, cardiac, smooth)
Integumentary System
skin, hair, nails
Cardiovascular System
heart, blood vessels, blood
Respiratory System
air passages, lungs
Immune System
lymph nodes and vessels, white blood cells
Digestive System
mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small and large intestines
Excretory System
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, skin, lungs
Nervous System
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs, receptors
Endocrine System
glands (such as adrenal, thyroid, pituitary, and pancreas); hypothalamus and specialized cells in the brain, heart, stomach, and other organs
Reproductive System
ovaries, uterus, mammary glands (in females), testes (in males)
Cavities
compartments that house many organs in the human body; five major
Cranial Cavity
contains the brain
Spinal Cavity
surrounds the spinal cord; houses
Diaphragm
wall of muscle that separates the two main cavities in the trunk of the human body
Thoracic Cavity
upper compartment; contains the heart, esophagus, and the organs of the respiratory system
Abdominal Cavity
lower compartment; contains the organs of the digestive system
Pelvic Cavity
contains the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems
206
number of bones in the adult human body
Axial Skeleton
the bones of the skull, ribs, spine, and sternum form this
Appendicular Skeleton
the bones of the arms and legs, along with the scapula, clavicle, and pelvis make up this
periosteum
a tough membrane that covers that surface of a bone; contains a network of blood vessels, which supply nutrients, and nerves, which signal pain
compact bone
a hard material under the periosteum
lamellae
protein fiber; compact bone is composed of cylinders of this
Haversian Canal
a narrow channel in the center of each cylinder; blood vessels run through these
osteocytes
bone cells which are embedded within the gaps of protein layers
spongy bone
a network of connective tissue beneath some compact bone; makes bones both light and strong
bone marrow
a soft tissue which can be red or yellow; found in many bones
Red bone marrow
this bone marrow is found in spongy bones, the ends of long bones, ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis; produces red blood cells, platelets, and which blood cells
Yellow bone marrow
fills the shafts of long bones; consists of mostly fat cells and serves as an energy reserve; can only be converted to the other bone marrow and produce blood cells when severe blood loss occurs
fracture
a crack or break in a bone
ossification
the process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals
epiphyseal plate
composed of cartilage cells that divide and form columns; bone elongation take place near the ends of long bones in this area
joint
the place where two bones meet
fixed joints
these joints prevent movement; found in the skull
semimovable joints
these joints permit limited movement; rib cage, vertebrae, and sternum
movable joints
all other joints in the body; include five different types
Hinge Joint
this joint is found in the elbow, which allows you to move your forearm upward and downward
ball and socket joint
this joint is the shoulder joint; it allows your arm to rotate in a complete circle
pivot joint
this joint is formed by your top two vertebrae; it allows you to move your head side to side
saddle joint
this joint is found at the base of each thumb; allowed you to rotate your thumbs and helps you grasp objects with your hand
gliding joints
these joints allowed bones to slide over one another
ligaments
tough bands of connective tissue that hold bones of the joint in place
synovial fluid
this lubricating substance is put on joint that are subjected to a great deal of pressure; protects damage of bones by friction
rheumatoid arthritis
develops when the immune system begins to attack body tissues; joints become inflamed, swollen, stuff, and deformed
osteoarthritis
a degenerative joint disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of bone becomes thinner and rougher; causes severe discomfort