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Logic-Intro to Ethics Test study set
Terms in this set (35)
the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing and recommending values related to human conduct
Standard of behavior that govern the acceptability of some action, given a particular ethic
a chain of thought offered in which reasons are offered in support of some conclusions
A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion.
logically valid argument
an argument where the truth of the premises guarantees the truth of the conclusion
Logically sound argument
An argument is logically sound if and only if it is logically valid and all its premises are true.
in an ethical dilemma, the person making the decision
An argument about what should happen
An argument about the facts as they are presented.
the first part of a syllogism, consisting of a general statement about the subject of your argument
a statement about a specific case related to the general characteristics of the major premise
conclusion (of syllogism)
the ultimate point or generalization that a syllogism expresses
The Requirement of Impartiality
The logical requirement that a moral agent should not assume a position of moral superiority without justification.
An error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid
red herring fallacy
when a speaker introduces an irrelevant issue or piece of evidence to divert attention from the subject of the speech
ad hominem argument
an argument attacking an individual's character rather than his or her position on an issue
post hoc ergo propter hoc
This fallacy is Latin for "after which therefore because of which," meaning that it is incorrect to always claim that something is a cause just because it happened earlier. One may loosely summarize this fallacy by saying that correlation does not imply causation.
A fallacy in which the argument repeats the claim as a way to provide evidence.
false appeal to authority
A person is cited in an area outside their expertise or they are cited when there is no consensus in the field or they're cited when the opinion is not considered
Appeal to Popularity (Bandwagon)
Appealing to popularity or the fact that many people do something as an attempted form of validation
Slippery Slope Argument
In order to show that a proposition is unacceptable, a sequence of increasingly unacceptable events is shown to follow. A slippery slope is an illegitimate us of the "if - then" operator.
Straw Man Argument
consists of an oversimplification of an opponent's argument to make it easier to attack
occurs when it is suggested that only two alternatives exist even though there may be others
Appeal to emotion/pity
Using a strong emotional response in place of evidence
Minimum Conception of Morality
Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one's conduct by reason (logic)- that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing- while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual affected by one's decision (impartiality) assuming that moral agent has acted autonomously
the idea that every event is necessitated by antecedent events and conditions together with the laws of nature
Studied free will and determinism - brain knew when you would click before you consciously did
Einstein on time
Time is relative to each individual because motion through space impacts the passing of time. Suggests that all time (Past, Present and Future) exist. Implication is support for Causal Determinism.
Corrollary to Libet Experiment. No free will but we have veto power or self control to stop an action that the brain has begun.
All Knowing Computer Thought Experiment
Argument against causal determinism. Hypothetical situation where a computer completely determines all physical products in the world (every atom, molecule and its position). Computer spits out what a person will do next and it should be inevitable, but person is able to disobey computer.
Principle of Alternate Possibilities
Principle that an action is free only if an agent could have done otherwise. If there are alternate possibilities, and action is said to have come from Free Will.
Event Causation vs. Agent Causation
Essentially the crux of the debate between free will and determinism. Free will argues that although events are caused by deterministic forces, an agent (person) , being propelled by a mind (invisible) can start a new chain of causality on their own.
2nd order volition
The ability to exercise self control over a desire. Ex. She has a desire (first order volition) to be wealthy but she desires (2nd order volition) not to commit robbery to attain her desire.
Idea that Causal Determinism and Free Will are both possibly true. While most of the circumstances surrounding a decision are pre determined, an agent can choose from a limited set of options.
Requirement of Autonomy
Ethics assumption that compatibilsm or free will are in fact true and causal determinism false. As a result a moral agent can be held responsible for their choices.
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