PLTW human body systems EOC
Terms in this set (227)
Situated toward the front of the body
Away from the body surface; more internal
Terms used to explain where one body structure is in relation to another
Situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central point; located away from the center of the body
Being or located near, on, or toward the back or posterior part of the human body
The distinguishing character or personality of an individual
Situated below and closer to the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being
Of or relating to the side; especially of a body part
Lying or extending in the middle; especially of a body part
Situated at or toward the hind part of the body
Situated next to or near the point of attachment or origin or a central point
Anatomical terms that refer to specific visible landmarks on the surface of the body
Of, relating to, or located near the surface
Situated toward the head and further away from the feet than another and especially another similar part of an upright body especially of a human being
A group of body organs or structures that together perform one or more vital functions
Pertaining to the anterior or front side of the body; opposite of dorsal
Connective tissue in which fat is stored and which has the cells distended by droplets of fat
Bones of the limbs and limb girdles that are attached to the axial skeleton
The skeleton of the trunk and head
Animal tissue that functions mainly to bind and support other tissues, having a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
Sheets of tightly packed cells that line organs and body cavities
The proximal bone of the hind or lower limb that is the longest and largest bone in the human body, extends from the hip to the knee
The branch of physical anthropology in which anthropological data, criteria, and techniques are used to determine the sex, age, genetic population, or parentage of skeletal or biological materials in questions of civil or criminal law
The longest bone of the upper arm or forelimb extending from the shoulder to the elbow
A basin-shaped structure in the skeleton of many vertebrates that is formed by the pelvic girdle together with the sacrum and often various coccygeal and caudal vertebrae and that in humans is composed of the two hip bones bounding it on each side and in front while the sacrum and coccyx complete it behind
The skeleton of the head forming a bony case that encloses and protects the brain and chief sense organs and supports the jaws
The inner and usually larger of the two bones of the leg between the knee and ankle that articulates above with the femur and below with the talus -- called also shinbone
An integrated group of cells with a common structure and function
A polysaccharide obtained from seaweed that is used as the supporting medium in gel electrophoresis.
The measurement and analysis of unique physical or behavioral characteristics (as fingerprint or voice patterns) especially as a means of verifying personal identity.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins
The separation of nucleic acids or proteins, on the basis of their size and electrical charge, by measuring their rate of movement through an electrical field in a gel.
A degradative enzyme that recognizes specific nucleotide sequences and cuts up DNA.
Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes).
The part of the brain composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata and connecting the spinal cord with the forebrain and cerebrum.
Central nervous system
The part of the nervous system which in vertebrates consists of the brain and spinal cord, to which sensory impulses are transmitted and from which motor impulses pass out, and which supervises and coordinates the activity of the entire nervous system.
A large dorsally projecting part of the brain concerned especially with the coordination of muscles and the maintenance of bodily equilibrium, situated between the brain stem and the back of the cerebrum and formed in humans of two lateral lobes and a median lobe.
The dorsal portion, composed of right and left hemispheres, of the vertebrate forebrain; the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex function of the central nervous system.
A convoluted ridge between anatomical grooves.
A group of subcortical structures (as the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala) of the brain that are concerned especially with emotion and motivation.
A division of a body organ (as the brain, lungs, or liver) marked off by a fissure on the surface.
Peripheral nervous system
The part of the nervous system that is outside the central nervous system and comprises the cranial nerves excepting the optic nerve, the spinal nerves, and the autonomic nervous system.
The study of the conformation of the skull based on the belief that it is indicative of mental faculties and character.
A shallow furrow on the surface of the brain separating adjacent gyri.
A momentary reversal in electrical potential across a plasma membrane (as of a nerve cell or muscle fiber) that occurs when a cell has been activated by a stimulus.
A long nerve cell process that usually conducts impulses away from the cell body.
Any of the usually branching protoplasmic processes that conduct impulses toward the body of a neuron.
An atom or group of atoms that carries a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained one or more electrons.
In a neuron, an insulating coat of cell membrane from Schwann cells that is interrupted by nodes of Ranvier
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane.
A substance (as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse.
The time elapsing between the beginning of the application of a stimulus and the beginning of an organism's reaction to it.
An automatic and often inborn response to a stimulus that involves a nerve impulse passing inward from a receptor to the spinal cord and thence outward to an effector (as a muscle or gland) without reaching the level of consciousness and often without passing to the brain.
The place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another.
A gland (as the thyroid or the pituitary) that produces an endocrine secretion -- called also ductless gland, gland of internal secretion.
The glands and parts of glands that produce endocrine secretions, help to integrate and control bodily metabolic activity, and include especially the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, islets of Langerhans, ovaries, and testes.
A gland (as a sweat gland, a salivary gland, or a kidney) that releases a secretion external to or at the surface of an organ by means of a canal or duct.
A cell, group of cells, or organ of endothelial origin that selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body or for elimination from the body
A protein hormone that is produced especially by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver.
Any one of the many circulating chemical signals found in all multicellular organisms that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and coordinate the various parts of the organism by interacting with target cells.
The ventral part of the vertebrate forebrain; functions in maintaining homeostasis, especially in coordinating the endocrine and nervous systems; secretes hormones of the posterior pituitary and releasing factors, which regulate the anterior pituitary.
A vertebrate hormone that lowers blood glucose levels by promoting the uptake of glucose by most body cells and the synthesis and storage of glycogen in the liver
An endocrine gland at the base of the hypothalamus; consists of a posterior lobe, which stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothalamus, and an anterior lobe, which produces and secretes many hormones that regulate diverse body functions.
The automatic adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances affected chiefly by changes in the convexity of the crystalline lens.
A defect of an optical system (as a lens) causing rays from a point to fail to meet in a focal point resulting in a blurred and imperfect image.
The small circular area in the retina where the optic nerve enters the eye that is devoid of rods and cones and is insensitive to light.
Any of the conical photosensitive receptor cells of the vertebrate retina that function in color vision
The transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior.
The ability to judge the distance of objects and the spatial relationship of objects at different distances.
A condition in which visual images come to a focus behind the retina of the eye and vision is better for distant than for near objects -- called also farsightedness
The opaque muscular contractile diaphragm that is suspended in the aqueous humor in front of the lens of the eye, is perforated by the pupil and is continuous peripherally with the ciliary body, has a deeply pigmented posterior surface which excludes the entrance of light except through the pupil and a colored anterior surface which determines the color of the eyes.
A curved piece of glass or plastic used singly or combined in eyeglasses or an optical instrument (as a microscope) for forming an image by focusing rays of light
A condition in which the visual images come to a focus in front of the retina of the eye because of defects in the refractive media of the eye or of abnormal length of the eyeball resulting especially in defective vision of distant objects -- called also nearsightedness.
Either of the pair of sensory nerves that comprise the second pair of cranial nerves, arise from the ventral part of the diencephalon, form an optic chiasma before passing to the eye and spreading over the anterior surface of the retina, and conduct visual stimuli to the brain.
The opening in the iris, which admits light into the interior of the vertebrate eye; muscles in the iris regulate its size.
The deflection from a straight path undergone by a light ray or a wave of energy in passing obliquely from one medium (as air) into another (as water or glass) in which its velocity is different.
The sensory membrane that lines most of the large posterior chamber of the vertebrate eye, is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones, and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve.
Any of the long rod-shaped photosensitive receptors in the retina responsive to faint light
The maintenance of relatively stable internal physiological conditions (as body temperature or the pH of blood) in higher animals under fluctuating environmental conditions
A very large molecule (as of a protein, nucleic acid, or carbohydrate) built up from smaller chemical structures
A very large molecule (as of a protein, nucleic acid, or carbohydrate) built up from smaller chemical structures
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in the cell.
Synthetic, energy-requiring reactions whereby small molecules are built up into larger ones.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The rate at which heat is given off by an organism at complete rest.
Body mass index (BMI)
A measure of body fat that is the ratio of the weight of the body in kilograms to the square of its height in meters.
A soft mass of chewed food.
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1°C. The Calorie (with a capital C), usually used to indicate the energy content of food, is a kilocalorie
Chemical reactions that break down complex organic compounds into simple ones, with the net release of energy.
The process of making food absorbable by mechanically and enzymatically breaking it down into simpler chemical compounds in the alimentary canal.
The bodily system concerned with the ingestion, digestion, and absorption of food.
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
A muscular tube that in adult humans is about nine inches (23 centimeters) long and passes from the pharynx down the neck between the trachea and the spinal column and behind the left bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm slightly to the left of the middle line and joins the cardiac end of the stomach.
A membranous muscular sac in which bile from the liver is stored.
The stomach and intestine as a functional unit
The more terminal division of the vertebrate intestine that is wider and shorter than the small intestine, typically divided into cecum, colon, and rectum, and concerned especially with the resorption of water and the formation of feces.
The largest internal organ in the vertebrate body; performs diverse functions such as producing bile, preparing nitrogenous wastes for disposal, and detoxifying poisonous chemicals in the blood.
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
A molecule that can combine with others to form a polymer.
The part of the mouth behind the gums and teeth that is bounded above by the hard and soft palates and below by the tongue and by the mucous membrane connecting it with the inner part of the mandible.
A gland with dual functions: The nonendocrine portion secretes digestive enzymes and an alkaline solution into the small intestine via a duct; the endocrine portion secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood
Successive muscular contractions along the wall of a hollow muscular structure
An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross.
A large molecule composed of repeating structural units or monomers.
A salivary gland enzyme that hydrolyzes starch.
Exocrine glands associated with the oral cavity. The secretions of salivary glands contain substances to lubricate food, adhere together chewed pieces into a bolus, and begin the process of chemical digestion.
The part of the intestine that lies between the stomach and colon, consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, secretes digestive enzymes, and is the chief site of the absorption of digested nutrients.
A saclike expansion of the alimentary canal of a vertebrate communicating anteriorly with the esophagus and posteriorly with the duodenum and being typically a simple often curved sac with an outer serous coat, a strong complex muscular wall that contracts rhythmically, and a mucous lining membrane that contains gastric glands.
The body cavity in mammals that primarily houses parts of the digestive, excretory, and reproductive systems. It is separated from the thoracic cavity by the diaphragm.
Terminal air sacs that constitute the gas exchange surface of the lungs.
Pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs.
A sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity in mammals; active in ventilating the lungs
Muscle located between the ribs.
The volume of air breathed in one minute without conscious effort. Minute volume = Tidal Volume x (breaths/minute
The volume of air remaining in lungs after maximum exhalation.
An instrument for measuring the air entering and leaving the lungs.
The body cavity in mammals that houses the lungs and heart. It is surrounded in part by ribs and separated from the lower abdominal cavity by the diaphragm.
The volume of air breathed in and out without conscious effort
The total volume of air that can be exhaled after maximal inhalation.
Movement away from the midline of the body
Movement toward the midline off the body
Hyaline cartilage attached to articular bone surfaces
The action or manner in which the parts come together at a joint
An articulation (as the hip joint) in which the rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity of the other and admits movement in any direction
A usually translucent somewhat elastic tissue that composes most of the skeleton of vertebrate embryos and except for a small number of structures (as some joints, respiratory passages, and the external ear) is replaced by bone during ossification in the higher vertebrates.
A movement at a synovial joint in which the distal end of the bone moves in a circle while the proximal end remains relatively stable
Bending the foot in the direction of the dorsum (upper surface
An unbending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
A bending movement around a joint in a limb (as the knee or elbow) that decreases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint
An instrument for measuring angles (as of a joint or the skull)
Joint between bones (as at the elbow or knee) that permits motion in only one plane
Translucent bluish white cartilage consisting of cells embedded in an apparently homogeneous matrix, present in joints and respiratory passages, and forming most of the fetal skeleton
The point of contact between elements of an animal skeleton whether movable or rigidly fixed together with the surrounding and supporting parts (as membranes, tendons, or ligaments)
Dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
Bending the foot in the direction of the plantar surface (sole)
Range of Motion
The range through which a joint can be moved
Moving a bone around its own axis, with no other movement
The space between the articulating bones of a synovial joint, filled with synovial fluid. Also called a joint cavity.
Secretion of synovial membranes that lubricates joints and nourishes articular cartilage
A fully moveable joint in which the synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones
A white fibrous cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
A contractile protein that is part of the thin filaments in muscle fibers
Nerve cells that carry impulses towards the central nervous system
Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons
Carpal tunnel syndrome
A condition caused by compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel and characterized especially by weakness, pain, and disturbances of sensation in the hand and fingers
To shorten and thicken
Nerve cells that conduct impulses away from the central nervous system
The delicate connective tissue surrounding the individual muscular fibers within the smallest bundles
The external connective-tissue sheath of a muscle
A small bundle or cluster, especially of nerve or muscle fibers
The attachment of a muscle tendon to a moveable bone or the end opposite the origin
An organ composed of one of the three types of muscular tissue (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth), specialized for contraction to produce voluntary and involuntary movements of parts of the body
A threadlike structure, extending longitudinally through a muscle fiber (cell) consisting mainly of think filaments (myosin) and thin filaments (actin, troponin, and tropomyosin)
The contractile protein that makes up the thick filaments of muscle fibers
A cordlike bundle of neuronal axons and/or dendrites and associated connective tissue coursing together outside the central nervous system
The attachment of a muscle tendon to a stationary bone or the end opposite the insertion
The connective-tissue sheath that surrounds a muscle and forms sheaths for the bundles of muscle fibers
Network of interlacing blood vessels or nerves
Temporary rigidity of muscles occurring after death
Any of the repeating structural units of striated muscle fibrils
An organ specialized for contraction, composed of striated muscle fibers (cells), supported by connective tissue, attached to bone by a tendon or aponeurosis, and stimulated by somatic motor neurons
Sliding filament mechanism
The explanation of how thick and thin filaments slide relative to one another during striated muscle contraction to decrease sarcomere length
A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons
Any of the alternate dark and light cross bands of a myofibril of striated muscle
A protein of muscle that forms a complex with troponin regulating the interaction of actin and myosin in muscular contraction
A protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction
The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body.
Any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries
Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body.
A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity
A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters.
A chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles.
The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel.
Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body.
The movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body.
Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself
A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute
Peripheral artery disease
A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm.
Peripheral vascular disease
Vascular disease affecting blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities
The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in the systemic circulation
A regularly recurrent wave of distension in arteries that results from the progress through an artery of blood injected into the arterial system at each contraction of the ventricles of the heart.
The volume of blood pumped from a ventricle of the heart in one beat
The passage of arterial blood from the left atrium of the heart through the left ventricle, the systemic arteries, and the capillaries to the organs and tissues that receive much of its oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide and the return of the carbon-dioxide carrying blood via the systemic veins to enter the right atrium of the heart and to participate in the pulmonary circulation
A bodily structure (as the mitral valve) that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only.
An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein of the legs.
Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart and have thinner walls than the arteries and often valves at intervals to prevent reflux of the blood which flows in a steady stream and is in most cases dark-colored due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin.
A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries.
Any of the minute veins connecting the capillaries with the larger systemic veins
Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires oxygen
Any of a group of usually synthetic hormones that are derivatives of testosterone, are used medically especially to promote tissue growth, and are sometimes abused by athletes to increase the size and strength of their muscles and improve endurance
Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and may be poisoned by it
A technique for temporarily improving athletic performance in which oxygen-carrying red blood cells previously withdrawn from an athlete are injected back just before an event
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel
A compound of creatine and phosphoric acid that is found especially in vertebrate muscle where it is an energy source for muscle contraction
A hormonal substance that is formed especially in the kidney and stimulates red blood cell formation
A highly branched polymer of glucose containing thousands of subunits; functions as a compact store of glucose molecules in liver and muscle
An organic acid present in blood and muscle tissue as a product of the anaerobic metabolism of glucose and glycogen
Inability of muscle to maintain its strength of contraction or tension; may be related to insufficient oxygen, depletion of glycogen, and/or lactic acid buildup
An insoluble fibrous protein of vertebrates that is the chief constituent of the fibrils of connective tissue (as in skin and tendons) and of the organic substance of bones.
The sensitive vascular inner mesodermic layer of the skin.
A protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers.
A hormone produced in the brain and anterior pituitary that inhibits pain perception
The outer nonsensitive and nonvascular layer of the skin of a vertebrate that overlies the dermis.
A membranous cellular tissue that covers a free surface or lines a tube or cavity of an animal body and serves especially to enclose and protect the other parts of the body, to produce secretions and excretions, and to function in assimilation
A mild burn characterized by heat, pain, and reddening of the burned surface but not exhibiting blistering or charring of tissues.
Any of various sulfur-containing fibrous proteins that form the chemical basis of epidermal tissues (as hair and nails) and are typically not digested by enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract.
Any of various black, dark brown, reddish brown, or yellow pigments of animal or plant structures (as in skin and hair).
Basic bodily sensation that is induced by a noxious stimulus, is received by naked nerve endings, is characterized by physical discomfort (as pricking, throbbing, or aching), and typically leads to evasive action.
Any of the small sacculated glands lodged in the substance of the derma, usually opening into the hair follicles, and secreting an oily or greasy material composed in great part of fat which softens and lubricates the hair and skin.
A burn marked by pain, blistering, and superficial destruction of dermis with edema and hyperemia of the tissues beneath the burn.
Severe burn characterized by destruction of the skin through the depth of the dermis and possibly into underlying tissues, loss of fluid, and sometimes shock.
Clumping of microorganisms or blood cells, typically due to an antigen-antibody interaction.
Alternate forms of a single gene that control the same inherited trait (such as type A blood) and are located at the same position on homologous chromosomes.
An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response.
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and elicits and immune response
B lymphocyte (B cell)
A type of lymphocyte that develops in the bone marrow and later produces antibodies, which mediate humoral immunity
Blood type (group)
One of the classes (as A, B, AB, or O) into which individual vertebrates and especially human beings or their blood can be separated on the basis of the presence or absence of specific antigens in the blood.
A condition of being able to resist a particular disease especially through preventing development of a pathogenic microorganism or by counteracting the effects of its products.
A usually clear fluid that passes from intercellular spaces of body tissue into the lymphatic vessels, is discharged into the blood by way of the thoracic duct and right lymphatic duct, and resembles blood plasma in containing white blood cells and especially lymphocytes but normally few red blood cells and no platelets.
Any of the rounded masses of lymphoid tissue that are surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue, are distributed along the lymphatic vessels, and contain numerous lymphocytes which filter the flow of lymph passing through the node.
Any of the colorless weakly motile cells that originate from stem cells and differentiate in lymphoid tissue (as of the thymus or bone marrow), that are the typical cellular elements of lymph, that include the cellular mediators of immunity, and that constitute 20 to 30 percent of the white blood cells of normal human blood.
An amoeboid cell that moves through tissue fibers, engulfing bacteria and dead cells by phagocytosis.
A long-lived lymphocyte that carries the antibody or receptor for a specific antigen after a first exposure to the antigen and that remains in a less than mature state until stimulated by a second exposure to the antigen at which time it mounts a more effective immune response than a cell which has not been exposed previously.
A specific causative agent (as a bacterium or virus) of disease.
A diagram of a family tree showing the heritable characters in parents and offspring over multiple generations .
T lymphocyte (T cells)
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.
A detailed analysis of a person or group, especially as a model of medical, psychiatric, psychological, or social phenomena.
Any measure whose purpose is to improve health or alter the course of disease.
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