Down Syndrome-upslanting eyes, flat nasal bridge, small broad flat nose, protruding thick tounge, short broad neck, etc.
Caused by a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine, causing degeneration of the basal ganglia in the brain. Face is flat and expressionless; mask-like
Caused by excessive secretion of ACTH hormone & chronic steroid use; person develops rounded, moon-like face, prominent jowls, red cheeks, etc.
An increased size of the thyroid gland Occurs w/hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis & hypothyroidism
Unilateral facial paralysis caused by paralysis of cranial nerve 7; rapid onset caused by a virus.
Connective tissue disease characterized by hardening and shrinking changes in skin, blood vessels, muscles.
Outer layer of eye; tough, protective white covering; covers iris and pupil
Three concentric coats of eye:
Sclera, Choroid and Retina
Has dark pigmentation to prevent light from reflecting internally and is heavily vascularized to deliver blood to retina.
The visual receptive layer where light is changed into nerve impulses.
Pupillary light reflex:
Normal constriction of pupils when bright light shines on the retina.
Direct light reflex:
When one eye is exposed to bright light, constriction of that pupil occurs.
Consensual light reflex:
When one eye is exposed to bright light, simultaneous constriction of the other pupil occurs.
A reflex of the eye toward the object attracting a person's attention.
Process where eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image (focus) of an object as its distance changes.
Peripheral vision intact Macual (area of keenest vision) absent at birth-develops at 4 months-mature by 8 months 4 months binocularity established-can fixate on image w/both eyes simultaneously Eyeball adult size by 8 yoa
Len's ability to change shape decreases, causing decreased near vision
A clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light.
Disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye
Chronic open-angle glaucoma:
Gradual loss of peripheral vision
Breakdown of cells in the macula of the retina, causing a loss of central vision/clearest vision; most common cause of blindness.
Eyes do not line up in the same direction when focusing. The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes."
Gross measure of peripheral vision
aka-corneal light reflex Assesses parallel alignment of eye axes Asymmetry indicates eye muscle weakness or paralysis
Detects small degrees of deviated alignment; if covered eye "jumps" to re-establish fixation, eye muscle weakness exists.
Diagnostic positions test:
Tests 6 positions to determine muscle weakness or dysfunction of a cranial nerve
Drooping upper eye lid Could be caused by stroke, Bell's palsy, etc.
Ectropion (ek-trō-pē-ˌän, -pē-ən): :
Lower eye lid rolls out
Entropion (en-ˈtrō-pē-ˌän, -ən): :
Lower eye lid rolls in
Chronic inflammation of eye lids
Unequal pupil size
Inflammation of lacrimal sac; more common in children
Fixed and dilated pupils
Infection of the conjunctiva; "pink eye" is caused by bacterial or viral infections, allergies or chemical irritation.
External ear (Auricle or Pinna):
Funnels sound waves into the external auditory canal
Tympanic Membrane (eardurm):
Separates the enternal and middle ear
Tiny air-filled cavity inside the temporal bone that conducts sound.
Found in middle ear, allows for equalization of air pressure on each side of tympanic membrane, preventing rupture.
Sensory organ for equilibrium and hearing.
Dizziness that feels as if the room is spinning
Ringing of ears
Tuning Fork Tests:
Tests for conductive hearing loss by air or bone conduction.
Abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss; common cause of conductive hearing loss in young adults between 20-40.
Middle ear infection caused by obstruction of eustachian tube .
Pathways of Hearing:
Normal pathway is air conduction; alternate route is bone conduction.
Weber test and Rinne test determines this type of hearing loss.
Number of teeth:
Permenant (adult): 32 Primary (baby teeth): 20
Cranial nerve 12:
Allows us to stick out our tounges.
+1 Visible, +2 Halfway between tonsillar pillars and uvula, +3 Touching uvula, +4 Touching each other
Air filled pockets within the cranium
Two sinuses accessible to examine:
Frontal and Maxillary sinuses
Two sinuses present at birth:
Maxillary and ethmoid sinuses
Three parallel bony projections on the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
These teeth erupt between 6 & 24 months
Yeast infection of the mouth and throat caused by a fungus formerly called Monilia, now known as candida albicans
Drifting teeth that occurs wtih tooth loss
Tuning fork is placed on mastoid process, then is quickly inverted and placed by ear canal; patient signals when sound goes away. Positive Rinne test (is normal)when sound is heard twice as long by air conduction as by bone conduction. AC>BC.
Tests hearing when patient reports hearing better w/one ear over the other; fork is placed midline skull-should hear sound equally
A bony protrusion on the palate. Palatal tori are usually present on the midline of the hard palate.
Inflammation of the middle ear, or middle ear infection.