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Using touch to asses factors of texture, temperature, moisture, organ location/size/swelling, vibration/pulsation, rigidity/spasticity, crepitation, lumps/masses, and tenderness or pain.
On parents lap; warm-up games; thorax, abdomen, extremities first; head area last.
Physiologic factors controlling BP:
Peripheral vascular resistance
Volume of circulating blood
Elasticity of vessel walls
False high blood pressure:
Cuff to narrow
Cuff too loose
Deflating cuff too slowly
Failure to wait before repeating
Halting during descent and reinflating
False low blood pressure:
Failure to palpate radial artery while inflating
Inflating not high enough
Diaphram too hard on brachial artery
Systolic pressure drop of more than 20 mm Hg
Orthostatic pulse increases 20 bpm
Specialized nerve endings designed to detect painful sensations from the periphery.
A neuron of the CNS that transmits impulses from sensory to motor neurons or to other interneurons.
Abnormal processing of pain message
Most difficult type of pain to assess and treat
Objective pain behavior:
Acute: guarding, grimacing, moaning, agitation, restlessness, stillness
Chronic: bracing, rubbing, diminished activity, sighing, appetite change
Consists mostly of collagen (a connective tissue); nerves, sensory receptors, blood vessels and lymphatics found here.
Thin, smooth,elastic, more permeable than adults; more at risk for fluid loss; subcutaneous layer is thin and inefficient
Itch is an unpleasant sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch
Salivary glands that may be examined:
In cheeks, over mandible, anterior to and below the ear
Beneath the mandible at the angle of the jaw
Endocrine gland w/rich blood supply that synthesizes and secretes (produces & discharges) T3 & T4 hormones that stimulate cellular metabolism
Areas Lymph nodes can be examined:
Head/neck, arms, axillae and inguinal region
Greatest amount in head/neck region
A general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen
Excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary; after puerty creates an enlarged skull and thickend crainal bones
Inspection of infant skull for suspected intracranial lisions or abnormal sized head.
Pilar cyst (Wen):
Smooth, firm, fluctuant (moveable & compressible) swelling on the scalp; benign growth.
Facial features associated with Fetal alcohol syndrome:
Short palpebral fissures
Low nasal bridge
Thin upper lip
Down Syndrome-upslanting eyes, flat nasal bridge, small broad flat nose, protruding thick tounge, short broad neck, etc.
Caused by a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine, causing degeneration of the basal ganglia in the brain.
Face is flat and expressionless; mask-like
Caused by excessive secretion of ACTH hormone & chronic steroid use; person develops rounded, moon-like face, prominent jowls, red cheeks, etc.
An increased size of the thyroid gland
Occurs w/hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis & hypothyroidism
Unilateral facial paralysis caused by paralysis of cranial nerve 7; rapid onset caused by a virus.
Connective tissue disease characterized by hardening and shrinking changes in skin, blood vessels, muscles.
Has dark pigmentation to prevent light from reflecting internally and is heavily vascularized to deliver blood to retina.
Consensual light reflex:
When one eye is exposed to bright light, simultaneous constriction of the other pupil occurs.
Process where eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image (focus) of an object as its distance changes.
Peripheral vision intact
Macual (area of keenest vision) absent at birth-develops at 4 months-mature by 8 months
4 months binocularity established-can fixate on image w/both eyes simultaneously
Eyeball adult size by 8 yoa
A clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light.
Disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the fluid in the eye
Breakdown of cells in the macula of the retina, causing a loss of central vision/clearest vision; most common cause of blindness.
Eyes do not line up in the same direction when focusing. The condition is more commonly known as "crossed eyes."
aka-corneal light reflex
Assesses parallel alignment of eye axes
Asymmetry indicates eye muscle weakness or paralysis
Detects small degrees of deviated alignment; if covered eye "jumps" to re-establish fixation, eye muscle weakness exists.
Diagnostic positions test:
Tests 6 positions to determine muscle weakness or dysfunction of a cranial nerve
Infection of the conjunctiva; "pink eye" is caused by bacterial or viral infections, allergies or chemical irritation.
Found in middle ear, allows for equalization of air pressure on each side of tympanic membrane, preventing rupture.
Abnormal bone growth in the middle ear that causes hearing loss; common cause of conductive hearing loss in young adults between 20-40.
+1 Visible, +2 Halfway between tonsillar pillars and uvula, +3 Touching uvula, +4 Touching each other
Yeast infection of the mouth and throat caused by a fungus formerly called Monilia, now known as candida albicans
Tuning fork is placed on mastoid process, then is quickly inverted and placed by ear canal; patient signals when sound goes away. Positive Rinne test (is normal)when sound is heard twice as long by air conduction as by bone conduction.
Tests hearing when patient reports hearing better w/one ear over the other; fork is placed midline skull-should hear sound equally
A bony protrusion on the palate. Palatal tori are usually present on the midline of the hard palate.
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