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hypotonic solution

the water goes into the cell. distilled water outside, into it. pushes out cytoplasm. causes cytolysis, cell bursting in animals.
outside there is less solute

hypertonic solution

water goes out of cell. salt water outside, water leaves cell to meet equilibrium and because of natural diffusion/osmosis. small cytoplasm
outside there is more solute


cell bursting


cell loses water and shrinks

isotonic solution

solutions are equal in concentrations.


amnt of salt solution in humans


red blood cell bursting


the movement of substances within the body in body fluids


between cells


circulation at the cell level

vascular tissue

at the organism level ... these are examples of arteries veins and capillaries in animals. In plants, xylem and phoem.


within ONE cell


cytoplasmic streaming


materials pass through cell membranes

cell membrane

selectively semi-permeable

cell membrane

made of double layer of lipids

cell membrane

called fluid mosaic model


real def: a random process in which the net from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.

diffusion problem

if a substance cannot dissolve in H2O it usually cannot pass through membranes (too big)

faster diffusion

this is the issue that makes diffusion go faster, by a bigger difference, then a faster rate.


does diffusion need a membrane?


can molecules diffuse through gas?


the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane (obv from high to low conc)


mixture of 2 or more substances where the molecules are evenly distributed: uniformly distributed mixture


these are not cloudy... clear, can be colored


water is the universal...


does the dissolving


is dissolved


sugar, salt, koolaid powder

passive transport

movement of materials whereby no energy is expended (required) by the cell. it is automatic. high-low (diffusion)

active transport

movement of materials requiring energy. expenditure by the cell (mitochondria)
this is low to high conc
moving substances against the concentration gradient


The cytoskeleton filaments with the smallest diameter. are composed of the contractile protein actin. They are dynamic filaments, constantly beig made and broken down as needed, and are responsible for events such as pseudopod formation and cytokenesis during mitosis.


straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins


in folding or taking in (pino+phago)


large particles leave the cell


large molecules cant get it, makes an indention for it. then a vacuole forms around the molecules. its active transport


large insoluble molecules can't get it. the cytoplasm streams outward to form pseudopods, these engulf the molecules. the food vacuoles then form. the lysosomes then digest the food.

cell wall

has pores but is NOT selectively permeable because it is not living like the membrane is

turgor pressure

makes plant cells rigid, because water is pressing against cell wall from the inside



prevent cytolysis

excretory systems, urniary system, sweating, exhaling, these are all to ______ _______

prevent cytolysis

contractile vacuoles, to pump out excess water. to _____ _____

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