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42 terms

bio benchmark

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hypotonic solution
the water goes into the cell. distilled water outside, into it. pushes out cytoplasm. causes cytolysis, cell bursting in animals.
outside there is less solute
hypertonic solution
water goes out of cell. salt water outside, water leaves cell to meet equilibrium and because of natural diffusion/osmosis. small cytoplasm
outside there is more solute
cytolysis
cell bursting
plasmolysis
cell loses water and shrinks
isotonic solution
solutions are equal in concentrations.
.9%
amnt of salt solution in humans
hemolysis
red blood cell bursting
circulation
the movement of substances within the body in body fluids
intercellular
between cells
diffusion
circulation at the cell level
vascular tissue
at the organism level ... these are examples of arteries veins and capillaries in animals. In plants, xylem and phoem.
intracellular
within ONE cell
cyclosis
cytoplasmic streaming
Absorption
materials pass through cell membranes
cell membrane
selectively semi-permeable
cell membrane
made of double layer of lipids
cell membrane
called fluid mosaic model
diffusion
real def: a random process in which the net from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration until equilibrium is reached.
diffusion problem
if a substance cannot dissolve in H2O it usually cannot pass through membranes (too big)
faster diffusion
this is the issue that makes diffusion go faster, by a bigger difference, then a faster rate.
NO
does diffusion need a membrane?
YES
can molecules diffuse through gas?
osmosis
the diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane (obv from high to low conc)
solutions
mixture of 2 or more substances where the molecules are evenly distributed: uniformly distributed mixture
solutions
these are not cloudy... clear, can be colored
solvent
water is the universal...
solvent
does the dissolving
solute
is dissolved
solute
sugar, salt, koolaid powder
passive transport
movement of materials whereby no energy is expended (required) by the cell. it is automatic. high-low (diffusion)
active transport
movement of materials requiring energy. expenditure by the cell (mitochondria)
this is low to high conc
moving substances against the concentration gradient
pinocytosis
phagocytosis
cyclosis
microfilament
The cytoskeleton filaments with the smallest diameter. are composed of the contractile protein actin. They are dynamic filaments, constantly beig made and broken down as needed, and are responsible for events such as pseudopod formation and cytokenesis during mitosis.
microtubules
straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins
endocytosis
in folding or taking in (pino+phago)
exocytosis
large particles leave the cell
pinocytosis
large molecules cant get it, makes an indention for it. then a vacuole forms around the molecules. its active transport
phagocytosis
large insoluble molecules can't get it. the cytoplasm streams outward to form pseudopods, these engulf the molecules. the food vacuoles then form. the lysosomes then digest the food.
cell wall
has pores but is NOT selectively permeable because it is not living like the membrane is
turgor pressure
makes plant cells rigid, because water is pressing against cell wall from the inside
turgid
rigid
prevent cytolysis
excretory systems, urniary system, sweating, exhaling, these are all to ______ _______
prevent cytolysis
contractile vacuoles, to pump out excess water. to _____ _____