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skinner chapter 8&9
Terms in this set (23)
Be able to distinguish between commands, warning, and advice.
commands are when the speaker tells the listener what he needs to do and arranges aversive consequences for the listener. warnings are different because they are not issued/arranged by the speaker. the aversive consequences are not arranged by the speaker. advice specifies behavior and implies positive reinforcing consequences that are not arranged/contrived by the speaker.
Explain how instructions are eventually needed less and less (p. 134). Give an example.
Why do some instructions carry on from generation to generation? (p. 135
because the contingencies they describe are long lasting. in other words, they carry on because they work and become easier to teach and remember the behavior they describe.
How do social contingencies support those described in governmental and religious laws? (p. 136)
people avoid breaking laws both governmental and religious to avoid social disapproval. this also is the same for unspecified social rules. people follow them to avoid social disapproval from others. in doing this, they come under control of the uncodified social sanctions from which the law originated from.
Distinguish between religious and governmental laws and the laws of science (p. 138).
religious laws and governmental laws codify contingencies of reinforcement maintained by social environments. in other words they are built around the social world. laws of science describe contingencies which prevail in the environment apart from deliberate human action. in other words, they are built around the natural world.
Why is the behavior of those following rules not quite the same as those who have been exposed to the contingencies? (p. 139)
the description of the contingencies is never is never complete or exact, it is simplified in order to be easier to understand and taught. and because the supporting contingencies are seldom fully maintained.
Explain how behavior that is contingency shaped can seem to be a reflection of greater "inner worth"? Compare it to rule-governed behavior. (p. 139)
doing good because one is reinforced by the good of others is more highly honored than doing good because the law demands it. in rule governed behavior, you are acting for fear of punishment. in the other behavior you are acting to feel well disposed. behaviors that are shaped by natural contingencies are said to come form the personality or mind of the person.
Do we need to understand the rules in order to be affected by contingencies? (p. 141) explain.
no. following other rules helps you generalize others. in other words your history of reinforcement allows you to generalize contingencies.
What is induction? (see the bottom of p. 143)
induction is not the process by which behavior is strengthened by reinforcement, it is the analysis of the conditions under which behavior is reinforced.
How does Skinner distinguish between conscious and unconscious behavior, rational and irrational behavior? (p. 144)
What does it mean to behave intuitively?
when a person behaves without using reason
Why are we likely to invent reasons for our behavior even when we aren't sure of them?
the advantages gained from examining the reasons for one's behavior are responsible.
What does Skinner say about the "truth" of a verbal description?
he says there is no way a verbal description of a setting can be true. there is no truth.
What is the evidence that someone possesses knowledge? (p. 151)
someone possesses knowledge when they do whatever action. it exists when the person is emitted the behavior
What does Skinner say about the idea of "possessing behavior"?
behavior only exists when it is being executed , the system was changed when the behavior was acquired and it is the changed system which is "possessed"
What is "possessed" in Skinner's perspective?
What does a "repertoire" refer to? (p. 152)
what a person or company is capable of doing given the right circumstances.
Explain the different kinds of knowing Skinner describes (i.e., to know ABOUT AND to know HOW)
to know is to know about and know how.
What does Skinner say about "putting knowledge to use"? (p. 154)
we do not act by putting knowledge to use, our knowledge is action, or at least the rules for action,
What does "knowing short of action" refer to? (p. 154)
one doesn't need to be actively behaving in order to feel or to introspectively observe certain states associated with behavior.
What are the three different kinds of understanding described by Skinner?
Echoing, Can respond appropriately, and the third, knowing about the contingencies
Give an example of each of the three different levels of understanding described by Skinner.
if someone says say "apple" and you say"apple" that is echoing. for responding appropriately i may know an answer to something simply because i memorized it. for knowing about the contingencies i know why it is important to eat healthy.
Why is it usually reinforcing to move from rule-governed to contingency-shaped behavior?
because the reinforcers in contingency shaped behavior careless likely to be contrived and hence less likely to work in the interest of others.
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