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a&p test 2
Terms in this set (86)
the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. requiring energy
the process of breaking down molecules, releasing energy.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules are bonded together with the removal of a water molecule.
Breaking down complex molecules by the addition of water
How does an enzyme interact with its substrate?
Substrate binds to active site forming a product
a region on an enzyme that binds to a protein or other substance during a reaction.
Descrive how negative feedback invoving a rate limiting enzyme controls metabolic pathways.
The rate limiting enzyme only lets the production get so far before it signals it to stop producing.
a non-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme
does not require oxygen
glucose molecules are broken down unto purivic acid
citric acid cycle
pyruvic acid molecules enter the mitochondria, become acytal CoA that enter a series of reactions
electron transport chain
carrier molecules and enzymes extract energy and store it as ATP, releasing water and heat
Excess glucose in cells may be linked and be stored as ________.
DNA information provides instructions for the cell to ________________.
synthesize protein molecules
portion of DNA molecule that includes its nucleotide base sequence, and the genetic information for making a polypeptide.
Small portion of the genome that codes for proteins
all the DNA in a cell
DNA replication steps
hydrogen bonds holding the two strands together break, the helix unwinds and pulls apart which exposes unpaired nucleotide bases, polymerase catalyzes of new nucleotides to the exposed ones and enymes knit togwther the sugar-phosphate backbone
synthesis of an RNA molecule from a DNA template
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Function of ribosomes in protien synthesis?
a ribosome binds to an mRNA and allows a tRNA anticodon to recognize its correct position to the mRNA codon
2 Major reasons mutation occurs
occur spontaneously during replication or some sort of damage due to mutagens
3 ways genetic code protects against mutation
1. some amino acids are represented by more than one codon
2. if one chromosome copy is mutated, the other may provide enough of the genes normal function so that it is not harmful
3. mutation in adult cells may not be noticed because of all the normal cells surrounding it
3 types of intercellular junctions
1. tight junctions
3. gap junctions
cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart
provide cytoplasmic channels between neighboring cells
A general chracteristic of epithelial tissue is that ___________.
cells divide rapidly
Explain how the structure of simple squamous epithelium provides its function.
single layer of thin, flattened cells through which substances pass easily. Functions in the gas exchange of the lungs.
simple cuboidal epithelium
carries on secretion and absorption in the kidneys
simple columnar epithelium
lines the small intestine
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
trachea, upper respiratory tract
stratified squamous epithelium
esophagus and epidermis
stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified colimnar epithelium
bladder and ureters
Composed of cells specialized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids
secrete into ducts
glands that secrete chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream
Exocrine glands that secrete without losing cellular material
glands that lose small portions of their glandular cell bodies during secretion
glands that release entire cells
A gland that secretes substances by exocytosis is an ___________ gland.
General Chracteristics of connective tissues
- made up of cells and fibers
- normally not tightly packed
- good blood supply
- bing things together
3 major types of connective tissue
- Fibroblasts: star shapped/ build fibers
- Mast Cells: release heparin and histamine
- Macrophages: are phagocytes
Thick fibers that have great tensile strength and are flexible, but only slightly elastic, are _________ fibers.
areolar connective tissue
forms delicate, thin membranes throughout the body. Found in the subcutaneous layer beneath the skin and surrounding organs
What is the difference between dense regular and dense irregular tissues?
Dense regular is made of strong collagen fibers that bind structures and dense irregular has thicker, randomly distributed collagen fibers and is found in pericardium and the dermis.
Why is injured dense regular tissue and cartilage slow to heal?
Because of the lack of blood supply, nutrients take a long time to reach the cells
Very fine collagenous fibers in its extra cellular matrix, found at the end of bones and in joints, soft part of the nose, and supporting rings of respiratory pathway
Describe how bone cells are organized in bone tissue.
Bony matrix is deposited by osteoblasts in a thin layer called lamellae which form circular patterns around capillaries within the longitudinal tubes called central canals. Once osteoblasts in lacunae are surrounded by matrix they are called osteocytes
Contrast the structure of epithelium membranes to that of synovial membranes.
Epithelial is thin, composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissues and it covers the body surface and lines body cavities. Synovial is composed entirely of connective tissue and lines joints
Membrane that lines a cavity without an opening to the outside of the body
Line body cavities that open to the outside
The skin; composed of epidermal and dermal layers
membrane lining the capsule of a joint
An organ specialized for contraction, composed of striated muscle fibers (cells), supported by connective tissue, attached to bone by a tendon or aponeurosis, and stimulated by somatic motor neurons
distinguish between the epidermis and the dermis.
The epidermis is the outer layer of skin composed of stratifies squamous epithelium. The dermis is the inner layer which contains connective tissue consisting of collagenous and elastic fibers, epithelial tissue, smooth muscle tissue, nervous tissue and blood.
explain what happens to epidermal cells as they undergo keratinization.
In keratinization, the cytoplasm fills with strands of a tough, fibrous, waterproof keratin protein. As a result, many layers of tough, dead cells accumulate in the outer dermis forming the outermost layer called the stratum corneum.
describe the function of melanocytes
Melanocytes produce melanin which provides skin color and protects deeper cells from the damaging effects of ultraviolet radiation in sunlight
discuss the functions of melanin, other than providing color to the skin
Melanin absorbs ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, which would otherwise cause mutations in DNA
name the tissues in each of the two layers of the dermis and describe their functions
the sweat glands that respond to elevated body temperature are commonly found on the forehead, neck, and back are ___________ sweat glands.
describe possible treatments for a third degree burn
Skin grafts are one possible treatment. An autograft is a piece of skin from the victim. A homograft is one from a cadaver. Skin grafts leave scarring.
heat rays escape from wamer surfaces to cooler surroundings
Heat moves from the body directly to the molecules of cooler objects in contact with its surface
Continuous circulation of air over a warm surface
As the fluid evaporated, it carries heat away from the skin.
What type of energy is found in molecular bond?
Where does glycolysis occur?
What are the bases of DNA?
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine
What is another term to describe DNA replication?
What does the genetic code consist of?
gene that is transcribed into RNA
Spindle-shaped cells with one centrally located nucleus and no externally visible striations (bands). Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs.
Striated, involuntary muscle found only in the heart
cartilage with abundant elastic fibers; more flexible than hyaline cartilage found in external ear
cartilage that contains fibrous bundles of collagen, such as that of the intervertebral disks in the spinal cord.
What cells produce mucus?
What tissue makes up the urinary bladder?
What tissue has a liquid matrix?
What structures increase small intestine surface area?
What tissue makes up tendons and ligaments?
dense regular connective tissue
What cells sense changes in their surroundings?
What tissue insulates, cushions, and stores energy?
adipose connective tissue
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