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Adv Bio

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ribosomes
synthesizes proteins
rough ER
modify proteins and transports to golgi bodies
mitochondria
generates energy
golgi apparatus
packages and ships
cell membrane
monitors what comes in and out of the cell
cytoskeleton
provides shape and transport mechanism
nucleus
stores DNA
nucleolus
produces ribosomes and protein
DNA
blueprints for proteins
lysosome
contain digestive enzymes
smooth ER
no ribosomes ; transports; cell membrane production
centrioles
cell division
cytoplasm
jelly like material holding organelles in place
primary wall
made from polysaccharides, these thin, pliable structures allow plant cells to respond to changing water pressure
secondary wall
formed of rigid cellulose, lignin, and additional deposits; reinforces plant cell shape
plasmodesmata
numerous tiny channels that cross the adjacent primary walls of living plant cells and connect their cytoplasm
tight junctions
link the cells of epithelial tissues linin the body's outer surface, inner cavaties, and organs
adhering junctions
joins cells that are subject to stretching
gap junctions
link the cytoplasm of neighboring animal cells and are open channels for the rapid flow of signals and substances
tonicity
amount of solute
passive transport
movement of molecules from high to low no energy
diffusion
random movement H-->L
through membrane
osmosis
diffusion of water H--> L
facilitated diffusion
H-->L requires protein channels
active transport
energy required needs a protein pump L--> H
ions(-,+)
bulk movements
form of active transport very large substances
endocytosis
movement into cell
exocytosis
movement out of the cell
concentration gradient
differences in concentrations
equilibrium
equal concentration in and out
integral proteins
interact with hydrophobic parts of the bilayer's phospholipids and they are not easy to remove
peripheral proteins
on membrane surface
transport proteins
passively let solutes cross the membrane through interior
receptor proteins
bind extracellular substances that trigger changes in cell activity
recognition proteins
identify each cell as belonging to a particular tissue or individual
adhesion proteins
help tissues of same type locate each other, stick together, and remain in the proper tissues
communication proteins
form channels that match up across the plasma membrane of two cells
hypotonic
lesser solute concentration
hypertonic
greater solute concentration
isotonic
solutions of equal solute concentration
transmission electron microscope
magnetic field is the lens; accelerated electrons are directed through a specimen, focused into an image, and magnified.
scanning electron microscope
a narrow beam of electrons move back and forth across a specimen to which a thin coat of metal has been applied