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synthesizes proteins

rough ER

modify proteins and transports to golgi bodies


generates energy

golgi apparatus

packages and ships

cell membrane

monitors what comes in and out of the cell


provides shape and transport mechanism


stores DNA


produces ribosomes and protein


blueprints for proteins


contain digestive enzymes

smooth ER

no ribosomes ; transports; cell membrane production


cell division


jelly like material holding organelles in place

primary wall

made from polysaccharides, these thin, pliable structures allow plant cells to respond to changing water pressure

secondary wall

formed of rigid cellulose, lignin, and additional deposits; reinforces plant cell shape


numerous tiny channels that cross the adjacent primary walls of living plant cells and connect their cytoplasm

tight junctions

link the cells of epithelial tissues linin the body's outer surface, inner cavaties, and organs

adhering junctions

joins cells that are subject to stretching

gap junctions

link the cytoplasm of neighboring animal cells and are open channels for the rapid flow of signals and substances


amount of solute

passive transport

movement of molecules from high to low no energy


random movement H-->L
through membrane


diffusion of water H--> L

facilitated diffusion

H-->L requires protein channels

active transport

energy required needs a protein pump L--> H

bulk movements

form of active transport very large substances


movement into cell


movement out of the cell

concentration gradient

differences in concentrations


equal concentration in and out

integral proteins

interact with hydrophobic parts of the bilayer's phospholipids and they are not easy to remove

peripheral proteins

on membrane surface

transport proteins

passively let solutes cross the membrane through interior

receptor proteins

bind extracellular substances that trigger changes in cell activity

recognition proteins

identify each cell as belonging to a particular tissue or individual

adhesion proteins

help tissues of same type locate each other, stick together, and remain in the proper tissues

communication proteins

form channels that match up across the plasma membrane of two cells


lesser solute concentration


greater solute concentration


solutions of equal solute concentration

transmission electron microscope

magnetic field is the lens; accelerated electrons are directed through a specimen, focused into an image, and magnified.

scanning electron microscope

a narrow beam of electrons move back and forth across a specimen to which a thin coat of metal has been applied

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